Science and Technology 科学技術 Vol.14 / #Coronavirus #コロナウイルス Vol.15(pharmaceutical products 医薬品 Vol.6:drugs 治療薬)

All the below links and excerpts are in English.

Tocilizumab/Atlizumab(Actemra®)に係るリンクと当方作成の抜粋を取り急ぎ以下のとおり貼っておきます。

Effect of Tocilizumab vs Usual Care in Adults Hospitalized With COVID-19 and Moderate or Severe Pneumonia: A Randomized Clinical Trial (w PDF; 10/20/2020) | @JAMANetwork
PDF 
Tocilizumab1 JAMA1-1_keyTocilizumab2 JAMA1-2_effectTocilizumab3 JAMA1-3_effect

Efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients: A living systematic review and meta-analysis (w PDF; 11/05/2020) | @CMIJournal
Conclusion
Cumulative moderate certainty evidence shows that tocilizumab reduces the risk of mechanical ventilation in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. While RCTs showed that tocilizumab did not reduce short-term mortality, low certainty evidence from cohort studies suggests an association between tocilizumab and lower mortality. We did not observe a higher risk of infections or adverse events with tocilizumab use. This review will continuously evaluate the role of tocilizumab in COVID-19 treatment.

Efficacy of Tocilizumab on Patients With COVID-19 (08/24/2020) | @MGHMedicine,@genentech ClinicalTrials.gov @nlm_news
Brief Summary:
This is a randomized, double blind, multi-center study to evaluate the effects of tocilizumab compared to placebo on patient outcomes in participants with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and evidence of systemic inflammation.
The aim of this study is to test the effect of Tocilizumab on multi-organ dysfunction in a phase 3 randomized controlled trial among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection.
Specifically, as compared to placebo, we will test whether tocilizumab is associated with a reduction in multi-organ dysfunction among hospitalized COVID-19 adult patients with elevated inflammatory measures. Multi-organ dysfunction will be measured as the incidence of the following composite endpoint (mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, mechanical support, need for inotropes or vasopressors, liver dysfunction (increased bilirubin), and all-cause mortality). We will also assess multiple pre-specified secondary (exploratory) endpoints and safety endpoints.
We hypothesize that, as compared to placebo, tocilizumab will reduce transfer to the ICU, need for mechanical ventilation, increase rates of hospital discharge in patients diagnosed with severe COVID-19 infection and evidence of exaggerated inflammatory response.

New results from a once-promising therapy show the difficulty of treating covid-19: In one study, the drug, tocilizumab, reduced risk of death in ICU patients, but two others found negligible results with slightly different patients (10/21/2020) | @washingtonpost
Studies offer little hope for tocilizumab in treating COVID (10/20/2020) | @CIDRAP
Time to Reassess Tocilizumab’s Role in COVID-19 Pneumonia (10/20/2020) | @JAMANetwork
Association Between Early Treatment With Tocilizumab and Mortality Among Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19 (10/20/2020) | @JAMANetwork

Efficacy of Tocilizumab in Patients Hospitalized with Covid-19 (10/21/2020) | @NEJM
Tocilizumab for COVID-19? Three Studies Yield Mixed Findings (10/20/2020) | @JWatch
Tocilizumab for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. The single-arm TOCIVID-19 prospective trial (w PDF; 21/10/2020) | Journal of Translational Medicine
Appropriate use of tocilizumab in COVID-19 infection (w PDF; 10/2020) | International Journal of Infectious Diseases @ElsevierConnect
PDF 
Tocilizumab4 IJID_Turkey

Roche’s Actemra helps keep coronavirus patients off ventilators despite earlier trial flop (09/18/2020) | @FiercePharma
…Roche is also pairing Actemra with Gilead Sciences’ antiviral Veklury, better known as remdesivir, in the phase 3 Remdacta trial. Eli Lilly’s JAK arthritis med Olumiant combined with Veklury helped patients recover faster in a recent trial run by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

Tocilizumab/IL-6 Inhibitors | @RealTimeCOVID19
Case report: use of lenzilumab and tocilizumab for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019. | @WHO
Decreased Mortality in Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients Treated With Tocilizumab: A Rapid Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies (w PDF; 23/09/2020) | @OUPAcademic
Tocilizumab for treatment patients with COVID-19: Recommended medication for novel disease (09/16/2020) | @NCBI
Efficacy of tocilizumab in COVID‐19: A systematic review and meta‐analysis (w PDF; 12/09/2020) | @WileyGlobal
Glucocorticoids, tocilizumab may reduce complications in COVID-19-related cytokine storm (09/03/2020) | @HealioRheum
Tocilizumab among patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit: a multicentre observational study (w PDF; 08/14/2020) | @TheLancetRheum
Tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study (w PDF; 08/01/2020) | @TheLancetRheum
Chugai Starts Phase III Clinical Trial of Actemra for COVID-19 Pneumonia in Japan (04/08/2020) | @chugai_cc
What is the role of the IL-6 inhibitor tocilizumab (Actemra) in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)? (11/10/2020) | @Medscape

Australia オーストラリア Vol.10(pharmaceutical corporations 製薬会社)

All the below links and tweets are in English.

取り急ぎ以下貼っておきます。

CSL(豪)の子会社
Pennsylvania Vol.11 (corporations: CSL Behring) / Australia Vol.29
UK Vol.173 (pharmaceutical corporations: Seqirus) / Australia Vol.30

上記リンク内に無い本日までのツイート

ツイッター検索で 上記製薬会社名 及び Japan や 日本の5製薬会社各社名 を入れて出て来たもの

Germany ドイツ Vol.5(pharmaceutical corporations 製薬会社)

All the below link and tweets are in English.

取り急ぎ以下貼っておきます。

Germany Vol.23 (pharmaceutical corporations: BioNTech)

上記リンク内に無い本日までのツイート


ツイッター検索で 上記製薬会社名 及び Japan や 日本の5製薬会社各社名 を入れて出て来たもの

U.K. イギリス Vol.31(pharmaceutical corporations 製薬会社)

All the below link and tweets are in English.

取り急ぎ以下貼っておきます。

UK Vol.170 (pharmaceutical corporations: GlaxoSmithKline)

上記リンク内に無い本日までのツイート


ツイッター検索で 上記製薬会社名 及び Japan や 日本の5製薬会社各社名 を入れて出て来たもの

Science and Technology 科学技術 Vol.12(pharmaceutical products 医薬品 Vol.5:influenza vaccines インフルエンザワクチン)

All the below links and excerpts are in English.

取り急ぎ標記関連リンクと当方作成の抜粋を以下のとおり貼っておきます。

Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine | @CDCgov
FluVaccines_CDC1-table1FluVaccines_CDC2-recommended&viruses
Flu Vaccination
How do flu vaccines work?
Flu vaccines cause antibodies to develop in the body about two weeks after vaccination. These antibodies provide protection against infection with the viruses that are used to make the vaccine.
The seasonal flu vaccine protects against the influenza viruses that research indicates will be most common during the upcoming season. Most flu vaccines in the United States protect against four different flu viruses (“quadrivalent”); an influenza A (H1N1) virus, an influenza A (H3N2) virus, and two influenza B viruses. There are also some flu vaccines that protect against three different flu viruses (“trivalent”); an influenza A (H1N1) virus, an influenza A (H3N2) virus, and one influenza B virus. Two of the trivalent vaccines are designed specifically for people 65 and older to create a stronger immune response.
What kinds of flu vaccines are available?
CDC recommends use of any licensed, age-appropriate influenza vaccine during the 2020-2021 influenza season, including inactivated influenza vaccine [IIV], recombinant influenza vaccine [RIV], or live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). No preference is expressed for any influenza vaccine over another. Both trivalent (three-ingredient) and quadrivalent (four-ingredient) influenza vaccines will be available.
Quadrivalent flu vaccines include:
Standard-dose quadrivalent influenza shots that are manufactured using virus grown in eggs. These include Afluria Quadrivalent, Fluarix Quadrivalent, FluLaval Quadrivalent, and Fluzone Quadrivalent. Different influenza shots are licensed for different age groups. These four vaccines are approved for people 6 months of age and older. Most influenza shots are given in an arm muscle with a needle. One quadrivalent influenza shot (Afluria Quadrivalent) can be given either with a needle (for people aged 6 months and older) or with a jet injector (for people aged 18 through 64 years only). …
Are any of the available flu vaccines recommended over others?
…the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends…including inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV), or live attenuated nasal spray influenza vaccine (LAIV4)…
Who Should Not Be Vaccinated?
… Factors that can determine a person’s suitability for vaccination, or vaccination with a particular vaccine, include a person’s age, health (current and past) and any allergies to flu vaccine or its components. …
Flu and COVID-19
Does a flu vaccine increase your risk of getting COVID-19?
Vaccine Effectiveness
Can I get seasonal flu even though I got a flu vaccine this year?
What protection does a flu vaccine provide if I do get sick with flu?
Vaccine Benefits
What are the benefits of flu vaccination?
Vaccine Match
What if circulating viruses and the vaccine viruses are different?
Why is there sometimes not a good match between a vaccine virus and circulating viruses?
Flu viruses are constantly changing (called “antigenic drift”) ? they can change from one season to the next or they can even change within the course of one flu season. Experts must pick which viruses to include in the vaccine many months in advance in order for vaccine to be produced and delivered on time. …
… While all influenza viruses undergo changes when they are grown in eggs, changes in influenza A(H3N2) viruses are more likely to result in antigenic changes compared with changes in other influenza viruses. These so-called “egg-adapted changes” are present in most of the vaccine viruses recommended for use in egg-based vaccine production and may reduce their potential effectiveness against circulating influenza viruses. …
Vaccine Side Effects (What to Expect)
Can a flu vaccine give me flu?
No, a flu vaccine cannot cause flu illness. …
What side effects can occur after getting a flu vaccine?

Flu Vaccine (Flu Shot) | @MedicineNet
Facts you should know about the influenza vaccine (flu shot)
・Types of influenza (flu) vaccines include the injection (killed virus), recombinant (made without flu virus), and nasal spray vaccines (containing live virus). …
What is influenza (flu)?
… Flu is a respiratory infection, that is, an infection that develops primarily in the lungs. People often call respiratory infections caused by other viruses the flu, but this is incorrect. These other infections are usually categorized as URIs (upper respiratory infections) and have multiple causes. …
Influenza viruses are divided scientifically into three types, designated A, B, and C. Influenza types A and B are responsible for epidemics of respiratory illness that occur almost every winter. Influenza type C usually causes either a very mild respiratory illness or no symptoms at all; it does not cause epidemics and does not have the severe public health impact of influenza types A and B. Type A viruses are divided into subtypes and are named based on differences in two viral surface proteins called hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). There are 16 known H subtypes and nine known N subtypes. …
The so-called swine flu pandemic of 2009 was caused by a novel influenza A virus designated H1N1 based upon its surface protein types. This virus was originally referred to as swine flu because many of the genes in this new virus were very similar to influenza viruses that normally occur in pigs in North America. However, this virus was actually quite different from the typical swine flu viruses found in pigs.

Types of seasonal influenza vaccine | @WHO_Europe
Two types of influenza vaccine are widely available: inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV) and live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV). Traditionally, influenza vaccines (both IIV and LAIV) have been produced to protect against 3 different seasonal influenza viruses (also called trivalent vaccines). In most countries this is still the case and the current trivalent vaccines contain influenza A(H3N2), pandemic A(H1N1) and 1 of 2 influenza B lineage viruses. However, recently vaccines which protect against 4 different viruses, including both influenza B lineage viruses (quadrivalent vaccines), have become available in some countries. …
Annual selection of viruses
The composition of influenza vaccines (both IIV and LAIV) are updated annually by WHO based on information gathered from the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS)…

Flu vaccine | @NHSuk
Flu vaccine and coronavirus (COVID-19)
Flu vaccination is important because:
・if you’re at higher risk from coronavirus, you’re also more at risk of problems from flu
・if you get flu and coronavirus at the same time, research shows you’re more likely to be seriously ill
・it’ll help to reduce pressure on the NHS and social care staff who may be dealing with coronavirus
If you’ve had COVID-19, it’s safe to have the flu vaccine. It’ll be effective at helping to prevent flu.

Influenza Vaccine for the 2020-2021 Season | @US_FDA
Influenza Vaccine (Flu Shot and Nasal Spray) for Adults | @WebMD
Q&A on Influenza (English; 11/21/2019) | 厚生労働省

World 世界情勢等 Vol.7

All the below links are in English.

取り急ぎ以下貼っておきます。

World Vol.51
World Vol.50
World Vol.49
World Vol.48
World Vol.47
World Vol.46
World Vol.45
World Vol.44
World Vol.43
World Vol.42
World Vol.41

U.S.A. アメリカ Vol.123(New Jersey ニュージャージー州 Vol.4: pharmaceutical corporations 製薬会社)

All the below link and tweets are in English.

Vol.122 (New Jersey ニュージャージー州 Vol.3: pharmaceutical corporations 製薬会社)の続き

ツイッター検索で 上記製薬会社名 及び Japan や 日本の5製薬会社各社名 を入れて出て来たもの


@MSD_JAPAN

U.K. イギリス Vol.30(pharmaceutical corporations 製薬会社)

All the below link and tweets are in English.

取り急ぎ以下貼っておきます。

UK Vol.169 (pharmaceutical corporations: AstraZeneca)

追加(本日までのツイート)

ツイッター検索で 上記製薬会社 及び Japan や 日本の5製薬会社各社名 を入れて出て来たもの


https://twitter.com/moneycontrolcom/status/1311949554284023808


https://twitter.com/BCCJapan/status/1193767882334687232
https://twitter.com/BCCJapan/status/1071924366328258560

U.S.A. アメリカ Vol.107(New York ニューヨーク州 Vol.2: pharmaceutical corporations 製薬会社)

All the below links and tweets are in English.

取り急ぎ以下貼っておきます。
New York Vol.35 (corporations: Pfizer)
New York Vol.36 (corporations: Bristol Myers Squibb)
New York Vol.37 (corporations: Regeneron)

ツイッター検索で 上記3製薬会社各社 及び Japan や 日本の5製薬会社各社名 を入れて出て来たもの


https://twitter.com/UMCGlobalSafety/status/1180090377161908224

Switzerland スイス Vol.2(pharmaceutical corporations 製薬会社)

All the below links and tweets are in English.

取り急ぎ以下貼っておきます。
Switzerland Vol.5 (pharmaceutical corporations: Novartis)
Switzerland Vol.6 (pharmaceutical corporations: Roche)
Switzerland Vol.7 (pharmaceutical corporations: Lonza, Actelion, Ferring Pharmaceuticals)

ツイッター検索で 上記5製薬会社各社名 及び Japan や 日本の5製薬会社各社名 を入れて出て来たもの


https://twitter.com/Kamacintosh/status/1232044166886105089
https://twitter.com/RebeccaDRobbins/status/1222956083301322752


 https://twitter.com/pharmalot/status/562637508815900674
 https://twitter.com/STForeignDesk/status/506366489046159360
 https://twitter.com/DunyaNews/status/484281346127175680


https://twitter.com/IFPMA/status/1240674566214737920


https://twitter.com/RebeccaDRobbins/status/1222956083301322752


https://twitter.com/HAccordingly/status/1221321860236955649


https://twitter.com/ResearchNews_24/status/1154008113730576384


https://twitter.com/JanssenAP/status/1177073498864279552