Peace, Nuclear deterrence … (Obama’s visit to #Hiroshima Vol.4; #Nagasaki)

All the below but one (in Spanish) are in English.


Obama invited back for second Hiroshima visit in peace project (06/20/2017) | AOI IKEGAMI @asahi

Hiroshima before the nuclear bombing shown in beautiful new video, compared with brutal aftermath: 140,000 people were killed in the blast ? almost half the population of the thriving city. (07/12/2017) | Josh Robbins @IBTimes

Japanese museum unveils footage of Hiroshima before nuclear bomb – The black and white video, lasting for a little over three minutes, shows scenes from central Hiroshima, a bustling and lively city in April 1935 (07/23/2017) | @TheNationalUAE

(in Spanish ↓)


Hiroshima, Nagasaki & the First Atomic Bombs (05/09/2014) | Marc Lallanilla @LiveScience

Einstein Saves Hiroshima

Story of cities #24: how Hiroshima rose from the ashes of nuclear destruction – In August 1945, a 16-kilotonne atomic bomb killed 140,000 people and reduced a thriving city to rubble. Hiroshima has been reborn as a place of peace and prosperity, but will memories of those dark days die with the last survivors? (18/04/2016) | Justin McCurry @guardian


Why is Canada boycotting United Nations talks to ban the bomb? – Short answer: the U.S. and NATO believe nuclear war is not only winnable, but can be fought like conventional war (06/14/2017) | Judith Deutsch @nowtoronto


Frank Miller Debunks Nuclear Deterrence Myths, Fake News (06/28/2017) | Peter Huessy @RCDefense

As Hiroshima Day dawns, why are we still tempting nuclear fate? – It is a wonder we have survived all these decades, given US policies on nuclear armament since Hiroshima (06/08/2014) | Norm Chomsky @guardian


What the last Nuremberg prosecutor alive wants the world to know (05/07/2017) | Lesley Stahl @CBSNews


“Unthinkable” – Candidate Trump said that, as President, opponents should never know whether or not he would use nuclear weapons adding uncertainty to Nuclear deterrence. (Podcast; 06/08/2017) | Keir A. Lieber, Daryl Press & Paul Bracken


VlAD’S A BIGGUN Russian nuclear powered submarine test fires a ballistic missile capable of a blast 100 TIMES more powerful than Hiroshima – The?Bulava missile, which weighs over 36 tonnes, carries six nuclear warheads and can travel nearly 6,000 miles across the globe (w Video; 29/06/2017) | Mark Hodge @TheSun


The Sad March of the Japanese Left (05/01/2017) | M. W. Larson @LAReviewofBooks

cf. Obama’s visit to Hiroshima Vol.3 Obama’s visit to Hiroshima Vol.2 Obama’s visit to Hiroshima Vol.1 Abe’s visit to Pearl Harbor

“The Creation and Destruction of Value” 価値の創造と破壊 Vol.17

(All the below links are in English.)

Vol.17 パワーポリティクスの重要性(第5章-7)

 『今世紀の米国』とも言われる中国は、当初は中小民間企業の発展による近代経済の奇跡を起こしていたが、1990年代までには大手国営企業が民間企業を邪魔するようになってしまい、世界で最も近代的な都市と評されることもある上海は、中国で最も非起業的な都市とも言われている。
 また、中国は、IMFやWTOにおける自国の国際的影響力が国力ほど大きくないのではないかという心配をしている。戦間期に米国が、古き覇権国であった英国のパワーの道具かのようで英国の利益に直結していた国際連盟に、心地悪さを覚えたのと同様である。
 そして、2009年初期のベストセラー『不幸な中国』は中国が超大国として自国の権利を主張することを促し、2008年10月24日のASEM直前には胡主席(当時)は構築される国際秩序においてより大きな声で中国のリーダーシップを発揮していくと約束している。2009年3月には、世界の中心国家たる中国は、米ドルの将来の役割の不透明さを取り上げ、世界の中心国家で無かったフランスが1960年代に主張していた基軸通貨をドルから総合的準備通貨へ変更する計画を持ち出したりもした。

あくまで参考
Capitalism with Chinese Characteristics – Entrepreneurship and the State (PDF; 2008) | YASHENG HUANG @MITSloan
Is China the New America?: The Great Depression made the United States the world’s unquestioned financial leader. The current crisis can do the same for China. (3/25/2009) | Harold James @ForeignPolicy
Towards a new reserve currency system? | @HrReisen @OECD_Centre @OECDObserver

German Arctic Office to act as consultant to politics and industry

(The below link is in English.)

German Arctic Office to act as consultant to politics and industry (1/4/2017) | @AWI_de @EurekAlert
ドイツは北極圏に属さず領海も狭く北極関連の枠組みでも原則的にはメンバーになっていない反面、技術に強い経済大国であるところ、ドイツの Arctic Office についての記事と一部抜粋です。なお、現在、1月22-27日(於:TROMSØ,NORWAY。主催:Arctic Frontiers。)の”WHITE SPACE – BLUE FUTURE” が開催されています。

… The shrinking sea ice and collapsing permafrost coasts are now also becoming topics on the agenda of international politics and industry. …
… Due to the geopolitical, geo-economic and geo-ecological significance of the north polar region, which is changing particularly rapidly as a result of global warming, the German government endeavours to make the Arctic a key issue of German politics. … …Dr Volker Rachold. …
The German Arctic Office was initiated by the German Foreign Office, which represents Germany as an observer in the Arctic Council, and by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, which promotes Arctic research in Germany. …
… “Our network includes polar scientists of the Alfred Wegener Institute, but also scientists from other research institutions such as the Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, the German Aerospace Center (DLR), the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies and the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research. …
… “These countries are interested in our research results, for example the designation of marine protected areas. … Germany for instance contributes to the improvement of ice predictions for shipping and to averting possible environmental risks as a result of increased shipping,”…
He believes that investments by industry and politics in the Arctic region cannot be stopped, they can only be given sustained and vigilant support – for example by making use of modern environmental technology and by means of forward-thinking research. “One of our tasks at the Arctic Office is to explore specific questions asked by the government and companies together with institutions and universities, so that researchers can look into these issues. …

U.S.-Japan Summit Meetings 日米首脳会談 Vol.4(Abe’s visit to Pearl Harbor 安倍首相の真珠湾訪問 – via U.S. newspaper companies)

All the below links are in English.

標記の安倍首相真珠湾訪問についてのアメリカの新聞社の記事15件と一部抜粋です。
Here are articles on Prime Minister of Japan Shinzo Abe’s visit to Pearl Harbor with U.S. President Barack Obama. Excerpts are on our own.

Japan’s Abe offers ‘everlasting condolences’ during historic visit (w Videos; 12/28/2016) | @MelYamaguchi @HawaiiNewsNow
‘The ghosts of war’
Charles Morrison, East-West Center president, said Abe’s visit is a strong symbolic sign of the close relationship between Japan and the United States.
“It doesn’t end all of the ghosts of the war, but it reduces it,” he said. “They stand for their countries dedicating themselves to an era of cooperation that’s going to be even more important in the future.” …
Two cabinet members, Defense Minister Tomomi Inada and Foreign Affairs Minister Fumio Kishida, also attended the events. …
‘A big deal’
Abe’s Pearl Harbor visit marks a remarkable transformation in U.S.-Japan relations; the two have grown into close allies in the decades since they faced off in brutal conflict. At the same time, it’s significant that it took more than 70 years for the two nations to get to this point.
“This is definitely a big deal,” said Sal Miwa, of the Japan-America Society of Hawaii. …
A rare visit
“I personally don’t think that large powers make apologies to others,” Morrison said. “To acknowledge the wartime deaths in both countries, not just those who died in these attacks but those who died in the whole conflict, I think it just exactly the right way to go.” …
However, many news agencies suggest Abe’s Pearl Harbor visit could encourage a deeper friendship between Japan and the U.S. and could even lift his approval ratings.
Rick Tsujimura, of the East-West Center board of governors, said the timing of the historic joint appearance was perfect, since holding it on Dec. 7 would have been distracting. “Prime Minister Abe’s presence here is sort of the bookend to President Obama’s visit to Hiroshima,” Tsujimura said.
U.S. Rep. Tulsi Gabbard, D-Hawaii, also attended the commemoration ceremony Tuesday along with three-time Bronze Star recipient and World War II veteran Kenji Ego, who served with the 442nd Regimental Combat Team.

The Latest: Obama calls Japan’s premier’s visit ‘historic’ (12/27/2016) | @StarTribune
Hawaii local time 12:30 p.m.
… Obama says it shows “the fruits of peace always outweigh the plunder of war.”
Obama says the U.S.-Japan relationship is now a cornerstone of peace in the world. He says the alliance has never been stronger. …

Japan’s Prime Minister Visits Pearl Harbor With President Barack Obama:Shinzo Abe struck a similar theme in his remarks as the president did at Hiroshima by acknowledging suffering from Japan’s surprise attack but stopping short of apology (12/27/2016) | @CarolELee @WSJ
… Mr. Abe struck a theme in his remarks similar to Mr. Obama’s in Hiroshima—acknowledging the suffering from Japan’s surprise attack and calling Pearl Harbor a symbol of reconciliation between the two countries, but stopping short of an apology. …
Mr. Obama thanked Mr. Abe for his presence, calling it a “historic gesture” that “speaks to the power of reconciliation.” …
The two leaders, who earlier held a private meeting with their delegations, exited side-by-side to applause.

Japanese Leader Offers Condolences in Visit to Pearl Harbor (w Video; 12/27/2016) | @nytmike @nytimes
… For his part, Mr. Obama described in detail what occurred on the day of the attack, highlighted acts of heroism by American service members and said that the visit of Mr. Abe “reminds us what is possible between nations and between people.”
Mr. Obama added, in what seemed a warning after the scorching American presidential campaign: “Even when hatred burns hottest and the tug of tribalism is at the most primal, we must resist the urge to turn in. We must resist the urge to demonize those who are different. The sacrifice made here, the angst of war, reminds us to seek the divine spark that is common to all humanity.”
… In a statement earlier this month, the White House said that “the meeting will be an opportunity for the two leaders to review our joint efforts over the past four years to strengthen the U.S.-Japan alliance, including our close cooperation on a number of security, economic, and global challenges.”
… And Mr. Trump suggested that Japan would be better off if it had nuclear weapons. …

At Pearl Harbor, Obama says ‘we must resist the urge to demonize those who are different’ (12/27/2016) | @cparsons @latimes

At Pearl Harbor, Obama says ‘we must resist the urge to demonize those who are different’ (w Video; 12/27/2016) | @cparsons @chicagotribune
… They expressed concern that the lessons of the war might be forgotten amid a shifting world order and the anti-internationalist sentiment that has swept over politics around the globe…
“Ours is an alliance of hope that will lead us to the future,” Abe said, speaking to World War II veterans after paying tribute at the Pearl Harbor memorial. “What has bonded us together is the power of reconciliation, made possible through the spirit of tolerance.” …
But Trump has obliterated long-established protocols. He spoke with Taiwanese leader Tsai Ing-wen despite the U.S. policy of officially acknowledging no Chinese government other than the one in Beijing. …
…Sterling Cale…
“‘Sorry’ is just a word,” Cale said. “What matters more is the action of coming here and going out there with our commander in chief. That says more than words.” …
“Today, the alliance between the United States and Japan, bound not only by shared interests, but also rooted in common values, stands as the cornerstone of peace and stability in the Asia Pacific, and a force for progress around the globe,” Obama said. …

Japan’s Abe offers ‘everlasting condolences’ at Pearl Harbor (12/27/2016) | @joshledermanAP,@CalebAP @AP @BostonGlobe
… That was the closest Abe would get to an apology for the attack. And it was enough for Obama, who also declined to apologize seven months ago when he became America’s first sitting president to visit Hiroshima, where the US dropped an atomic bomb in a bid to end the war. …
… ‘‘War is war.’’
‘‘They were doing what they were supposed to do, and we were doing what we were supposed to do,’’…
… His remarks capped a day that was carefully choreographed by the US and Japan to show a strong and growing alliance between former foes.
… It was a bookend of sorts for the president, who nearly eight years ago invited Abe’s predecessor to be the first leader he hosted at the White House.
… but Abe was the first to go to the memorial above the sunken USS Arizona, where a marbled wall lists the names of U.S. troops killed in the Japanese attack.
… The visit was not without political risk for Abe, given the Japanese people’s long, emotional reckoning… Japan’s government still insists it had intended to give prior notice that it was declaring war and failed only because of ‘‘bureaucratic bungling.’’
…Tamaki Tsukada, a minister in the Embassy of Japan in Washington. …
In the years after Pearl Harbor, the US incarcerated roughly 120,000 Japanese-Americans in internment camps before dropping atomic bombs in 1945 that killed some 140,000 people in Hiroshima and 70,000 in Nagasaki. …

At Pearl Harbor, US and Japan seek absolution from the war (12/27/2016) | @joshledermanAP,@CalebAP @AP @stltoday

At Pearl Harbor, US and Japan seek absolution from the war (w Video; 12/27/2016) | @joshledermanAP,@CalebAP ‏@bskoloff,@mariyamaguchi @AP @KSL5TV
… Japanese officials said that in their talks, Abe and Obama agreed Tuesday to closely monitor the movements of China’s first and sole aircraft carrier, which has sailed into the western Pacific for the first time. Taiwan’s Defense Ministry reported Monday that the aircraft carrier and five warships sailed 90 nautical miles south of Taiwan, a self-governing island claimed by China. Beijing called it a routine training exercise.
In their last meeting before Obama leaves office next month, the two leaders affirmed that movements by the Chinese carrier Liaoning “warrant close attention from mid-term and long-term perspectives,” the officials said. Late last week, the Liaoning advanced into the western Pacific after passing the so-called “first island chain,” a sea defense line China unilaterally draws running from southern Japan to Taiwan, the Philippines and the southern South China Sea. …

At Pearl Harbor, US and Japan seek absolution from the war (12/27/2016) | @joshledermanAP,@CalebAP‏ @bskoloff,@mariyamaguchi @AP @seattletimes
… But in Washington Tuesday, State Department spokesman Mark Toner said the U.S. recognizes lawful uses of the sea, and the same rights apply to the U.S., China and other nations.
He said, “as we often make the case with our own naval vessels sailing … in those same waters, it’s freedom of navigation.”
Earlier this month, a Chinese navy vessel seized an U.S. Navy underwater glider that the U.S. said was conducting oceanic research in international waters off the Philippines. The U.S. called the seizure illegal and made a diplomatic protest. China returned the glider five days later. …

Japan’s Shinzo Abe offers ‘everlasting condolences’ at Pearl Harbor (12/27/2016) | @AP @NOLAnews
… “This visit, and the president’s visit to Hiroshima earlier this year, would not have been possible eight years ago,” said Daniel Kritenbrink, Obama’s top Asia adviser in the White House. “That we are here today is the result of years of efforts at all levels of our government and societies, which has allowed us to jointly and directly deal with even the most sensitive aspects of our shared history.” …
…Tamaki Tsukada…

Philly garden to honor man who challenged internment of Japanese Americans (12/27/2016) | @mwinberg_ @PhillyInquirer
… “At that time, I wasn’t thinking about his wartime experiences,” said (Kenneth) Finkel, a distinguished lecturer in American studies at Temple University. “But I’m sure he was, during every step of our time there.”
Morris Finkel, a prominent antiques dealer who died five years ago, had served as a lieutenant in the Navy aboard the destroyer USS Southerland, the first American warship to enter Tokyo Bay after Japan’s surrender, and his wartime experiences had biased him, his son said. …
Next month in Philadelphia, a new spotlight will shine on the often-fraught relationship between the two nations, when the Shofuso Japanese House and Garden holds a ceremony in memory of Fred Korematsu, an ordinary citizen who challenged the forced removal and mass incarceration of himself and other Japanese Americans during World War II. …
Korematsu was born and raised in Oakland, Calif., and worked as a shipyard welder. At age 23, he refused U.S. government orders to go to a Japanese internment camp and was arrested and convicted of violating the order. He appealed, but in 1944 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that his internment was permissible. That decision was overturned nearly 40 years later, in 1983, when Korematsu was in his 60s. …
(Kim) Andrews said the site’s message of cultural unity has remained consistent. “Shofuso was . . . intended as gift to American people in postwar years,” she said. “That was unusual at the time. Japan was in rough shape, and just coming out of American supervision. It was a heartwarming gesture, a symbol of Japanese culture.”
The site “evokes a lot of emotion to visitors, because it represents a lot of Japanese tradition,” said Dennis Morikawa, president of the Japan America Society of Greater Philadelphia. …

Obama, Japan’s Abe make somber visit to Pearl Harbor 75 years after surprise attack (w Video; 12/27/2016) | @blyte,@DavidNakamura @washingtonpost
…on Dec. 7, 1941. President Franklin D. Roosevelt had called it “a date which will live in infamy.”
… Obama declared that the “hallowed harbor” stands as a symbol not just of the valor of the Americans who fought to defend it, but also of the power of reconciliation between former enemies. It was a message, he suggested, that remains as resonant today as over the past seven decades.
…even when the tug of tribalism is the most primal, we must resist the urge to turn inward; we must resist the urge to demonize those who are different,”…
… This is the solemn vow we the people of Japan have taken,” Abe said, speaking mostly in Japanese. …
Obama praised the “greatest generation” that served in the war, including his maternal grandfather and the late Sen. Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii). The longtime senator, who died in 2012, served with fellow Japanese Americans in the highly decorated 442nd Regimental Combat Team at a time when the United States jailed many Japanese and Japanese Americans in internment camps. …
Abe thanked the United States for helping rebuild Japan after the devastation of the war, noting that Americans sent food and clothing to the Japanese people. …
… But the Japanese government has insisted that Tokyo had not intended it as a sneak attack. Rather, a cable notifying the U.S. military of the attack was delayed due to “bureaucratic bungling,” Tamaki Tsukada, a spokesman for the Japanese Embassy in Washington, said ahead of Abe’s visit.
“There’s this sense of guilt, if you like, among Japanese, this ‘Pearl Harbor syndrome,’ that we did something very unfair,” Tsukada said. He added that the prime minister’s visit could help “absolve that kind of complex that Japanese people have.”
… Japanese singer and film and television actor Ryotaro Sugi was at the event as well.
… “It’s time that all nations put away the atomic bomb. I congratulate Japan for doing that and I’m happy the prime minister is here.”
Obama flashed a traditional Hawaiian “shaka” sign, a gesture of friendship, before departing.

Japanese leader offers ‘everlasting condolences’ at Pearl Harbor memorial (12/27/2016) | @DaveBoyer @WashTimes
… The president also praised the U.S.-Japan alliance for “slowing the spread of nuclear weapons,” also seemingly a dig against Mr. Trump. …
The historic meeting was likely to be Mr. Obama’s last with a foreign leader as president. It came six months after Mr. Obama paid a similar visit to Hiroshima, Japan, where he became the first sitting U.S. president to see the site of the nuclear bomb attack by the U.S. that helped to force Japan’s surrender in 1945. …
China criticized Mr. Abe’s visit as an insincere attempt to absolve Japan of its wartime aggression.
“Trying to liquidate the history of World War II by paying a visit to Pearl Harbor and consoling the dead is just wishful thinking on Japan’s part,” said Hua Chunying, a Chinese foreign ministry spokeswoman in Beijing.
“Japan can never turn this page over without reconciliation from China and other victimized countries in Asia,” she said. “Japanese leaders should stop being so evasive and dodging, and instead take a responsible attitude toward history and future, deeply and sincerely reflect upon the history of aggressive war, and draw a clear break with the past.”
For Mr. Obama, the meeting with the Japanese premier also underscored his limited impact in his attempt to “rebalance” U.S. foreign policy toward the Asia-Pacific region. …
Dan Kritenbrink, Mr. Obama’s senior director for Asian affairs at the National Security Council, called the meeting “a powerful demonstration of how the two countries can overcome a very painful history to become the closest of allies and friends.” …

Without Obama, Shinzo Abe’s Approach to U.S.-Japan Ties May Be Tested (12/27/2016) | @motokorich @nytimes
…Kyoji Fukao, a professor of international economics at Hitotsubashi University.
…Takatoshi Ito, a professor of international finance and trade at Columbia University. …
Mr. Obama provided very clear promises of protection. …he declared that a security treaty obligated the United States to defend Japan in its confrontation with… It was the first time an American president had explicitly said so.
…Sheila A. Smith, a Japan expert at the Council on Foreign Relations. …
…Mr. Abe has worked for months to develop a relationship with Russia, trying to resolve… But a recent…with little progress.
… He visited Cuba and talked with the former leader Fidel Castro before he died… In October, Japan and Britain conducted their first joint military exercises…
But…
…Fumiaki Kubo, a professor of political science at the University of Tokyo…

abevisittopearlharbor

UNCLOS (国際海洋法条約) Vol.2(Troubled waters – the South China Sea)

Julian Lorkin’s interview with Shanghai-born Vic Edwards, a visiting fellow in the school of banking and finance at UNSW Business School and a part-time professorial visiting fellow at China Youth University of Political Studies in Beijing.

Troubled waters: Vic Edwards on the dispute in the South China Sea (w Video; August 17, 2016) | @JLorkin @UNSWbusiness
豪ニューサウスウェールズ大学や中国青年政治学院に籍を置く、上海生まれ中国系有識者のインタビュービデオ(上記link)抜粋・下線・抄訳です。

BusinessThink (@JLorkin): The Permanent Court of Arbitration’s ruling at The Hague in July has been rather coolly received, at least in China. It deals with thorny issues [of historic rights and the source of maritime entitlements] in the South China Sea, through which much of the world’s trade passes.
The question is, should Australia be worried and should China be concerned, particularly as the Chinese economy starts to cool? Let’s start with what China is calling the nine-dash line. What is the historical basis for their claims?
Vic Edwards: … So the US switched their allegiances to Japan and managed to persuade Japan to come on the side of the US, even though they were deadly enemies before that. And that was on the basis that they would save the life of the emperor, Hirohito, who was a godlike character in Japan. So by offering that as an olive branch, so to speak, Japan came onside with the US and with Great Britain in 1952.
(… 殺し合う敵だったのにアメリカが日本を同盟国に引き入れることができたのは、日本で神格化されていた天皇ヒロヒトをアメリカが救ったからだ。…)
​Over quite a long period there hasn’t been a great deal of difficulty and I think the position that China took was when you had the Permanent Court of Arbitration say that it wanted to arbitrate on the matter, China saw clearly that the international law of the sea, which they had interpreted as accepting their position of having the South China Sea, was therefore up for arbitration and dispute. Consequently, they decided not to submit themselves to the jurisdiction of the UN and the Permanent Court of Arbitration.
(中国は本件で長期間大きな困難がなく、中国は国際海洋法条約が南シナ海を有するという中国の立場を受け入れると明快に分かったので、仲裁裁判へと進んだ。…)
Now, that might have been their weak point because the court would have said that they were in fact subject to the jurisdiction of The Hague, whereas they had decided to withdraw from it because they felt that their position had been misrepresented. It’s not that they’re without support. They do have about half a dozen to a dozen countries that would give them some support on the matter.
(… 中国の立場が反映されていないと感じているので取り下げようと決めたのに、ハーグの常設仲裁裁判所が本件の中国は裁判管轄権下にあると言いそうだった点が中国の弱点だったかもしれない。中国を支持する国は5、6から12くらいある。)
And they are asking Australia to be very careful about drawing any conclusions or trying to make a judgment about what China should do. So we have already had one or two statements from Australia that China should comply with international law and they have responded by saying Australia ought to be careful because while we do have an international agreement for trade, that can very easily be dismantled.
(中国はオーストラリアに、中国がどうすべきかに係る結論やなにがしかの判断をする際に、非常に注意深くあることを求めている。既にオーストラリアは中国が国際法を遵守するべきである旨の1、2の声明を出しており、これを受けて中国はオーストラリアに、非常に容易に廃棄され得る豪中貿易合意があるので、オーストラリアは注意深くあらねばならないと応えている。)

BusinessThink: It sounds as if Australia could be in a position of trying to calm down the situation. Indeed, Australia could actually just pour a little bit of oil on those very troubled waters?
Edwards: … So I think that that’s a very positive thing between Australia and China, but by the same token Australia also has a very strong allegiance to the US. So consequently, I think one of the problems that Australia has is that it may be doing the beckoning of the US.

I think one of the problems that Australia has is that it may be doing the beckoning of the US.

The US, you might notice, has not actually come out strongly and criticised China on this matter, not directly. There are a few minor officials that have done so but you haven’t found Barack Obama coming out. And I think one of the reasons is that America itself does not comply with the international law of the sea and in fact it has not submitted itself to the jurisdiction of the UN here so it would be quite hypocritical if they were to criticise China in that position.
(お気付きかもしれないが、アメリカは実際本件について強く出たり中国を批判したりしていない。… アメリカ自体が国際海洋法条約を批准していないことがその理由の一つであると思う。アメリカは海洋について国連の裁判管轄権下にない。だから、アメリカが中国を批判すると、かなり偽善的となろう。)

BusinessThink: It’s a dangerous game to be playing, particularly as so much of the world’s trade goes through those areas. And we’ve seen, since the judgment, that a lot of people are quite concerned about what the possible outcomes could be. What would be the implications if, say, world trade was disrupted?
Edwards: … They’re saying that they’re not going to stop trade, they’re not going to stop fishing, they’re not going to stop peaceful planes from flying over the South China Sea. That will be continued just as it has been since 1948.

BusinessThink: Also in the area we’ve got Japan which has previously been – let’s call them neutral for the sake of a better word – for many, many years since World War II. But now, of course, we’ve got the rise of a much more dominant Japan. Could that throw a spanner in the works?
Edwards: Well, that would be something that could be an undesirable eventuality. Japan has been peaceful because part of the 1952 agreement with the US and the UK was that Japan would not under any circumstances have any armaments, would not have an army, navy or air force. Now, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has recently suggested that Japan needs to go back to a more defensive footing. Part of his excuse is China’s perceived aggression – and he may have some argument there.
(… 日本が平和的であったのは、1952年の米英との合意により、日本は非武装で陸軍海軍空軍いずれも持たないこととされたからだ。安倍晋三首相は、最近、日本はもっと国防に力を入れる軸足に立ち戻らねばならないと示唆している。その言い訳の一つは、認識されている中国の武力侵略である。…)
However, he has just recently got a majority in the Upper House – I think he’s even got his two-thirds majority – so he can in fact form an army, navy and air force. And he has said that he would like to form at least the army and perhaps the navy before 2018, which is the end of his term. So we won’t know what will happen then, but I would hope that nothing would happen in terms of having armaments, having any sort of warfare, having any sort of skirmishes. I don’t think that would be helpful to anyone and I really think it would be a lose/lose situation all round.
(しかし、彼はつい最近参議院で過半数を得てしまった。三分の二の賛成も得ると思う。そうすると、陸軍海軍空軍を創ってしまう。そして、彼曰く、自分の任期が終わる2018年より前に、少なくとも陸軍は創りたい、多分海軍もということである。武装や交戦、小競り合いはあって欲しくない。誰にとっても得でないルーズ=ルーズ状態だからだ。)

BusinessThink: All this controversy is happening just as the Chinese economy is slowing. What’s happening there?
Edwards: Well, I think we’ve had the global financial crisis; that’s one of the main factors that’s occurring. And also China is trying to transition from being an export-oriented economy to a consumption economy. Those two factors were always felt to slow down China and China had planned on transitioning from about 11.5% growth rate to about 7.5 % growth rate. But currently it’s running at around about 6.7%, so it’s a little bit under what it has planned for.
I think we should see it in perspective. That 6.7% is about twice as much as any other economy in the world and of course China is the big growth factor in the world.
(世界金融危機と、中国の貿易(外需)依存型経済から消費(内需)依存型経済への移行が、中国の経済成長を鈍化させている。目標成長率を11.5%から7.5%に下げているが、今の成長率はそれに少し足りない6.7%となっている。)

Without China, the whole world would probably slump into another recession.

So what China feels should be done is that countries such as the US and the EU should try to pick up their demand for things. And as recently as two weeks ago, the G20 countries agreed that they would try to improve demand. But they didn’t have any specific targets to meet so I’m not sure whether they will do very much.
(… G20は具体的な達成目標を示さなかったので、成果があったかどうか分からない。)
The US also is at present concerned about its trade with China, about the outsourcing of jobs to China, and particularly with Donald Trump [saying] he would like to not have any outsourcing and he would like to have local employment, etc, in the US. So the outlook is not great. China is still saying that it will meet its 6.5% to 7% target and it is endeavouring to do so, but I think that they will have a little bit of difficulty, but they will still be well above the world’s norm of around about 3.5%.
(… ドナルド・トランプは中国に雇用をアウトソーシングさせず、アメリカ国内のローカルな雇用を生むようにしたがっている。そうすると、中国経済の見通しは良くない。中国は引き続き6.5%から7%という目標を達成すべく努力するが、少々難しく、それでも世界平均を充分上回る3.5%程度の成長に落ち着くと見ている。)
So Australia can still see that it will do well. In fact, in such things as coal, minerals, iron ore and agricultural produce, demand from China has picked up. But of course the prices are lower, so we don’t get quite the same bang that we used to.

UNCLOS (国連海洋法条約)

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
PART II  TERRITORIAL SEA AND CONTIGUOUS ZONE
SECTION 3. INNOCENT PASSAGE IN THE TERRITORIAL SEA
SUBSECTION A. RULES APPLICABLE TO ALL SHIPS
Article 19  Meaning of innocent passage
1. Passage is innocent so long as it is not prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State. Such passage shall take place in conformity with this Convention and with other rules of international law.
2. Passage of a foreign ship shall be considered to be prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State if in the territorial sea it engages in any of the following activities:
(a) any threat or use of force against the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence of the coastal State, or in any other manner in violation of the principles of international law embodied in the Charter of the United Nations;
(b) any exercise or practice with weapons of any kind;
(c) any act aimed at collecting information to the prejudice of the defence or security of the coastal State;
(d) any act of propaganda aimed at affecting the defence or security of the coastal State;
(e) the launching, landing or taking on board of any aircraft;
(f) the launching, landing or taking on board of any military device;
(g) the loading or unloading of any commodity, currency or person contrary to the customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations of the coastal State;
(h) any act of wilful and serious pollution contrary to this Convention;
(i) any fishing activities;
(j) the carrying out of research or survey activities;
(k) any act aimed at interfering with any systems of communication or any other facilities or installations of the coastal State;
(l) any other activity not having a direct bearing on passage.
Article 24  Duties of the coastal State
1. The coastal State shall not hamper the innocent passage of foreign ships through the territorial sea except in accordance with this Convention. In particular, in the application of this Convention or of any laws or regulations adopted in conformity with this Convention, the coastal State shall not:
(a) impose requirements on foreign ships which have the practical effect of denying or impairing the right of innocent passage; or
(b) discriminate in form or in fact against the ships of any State or against ships carrying cargoes to, from or on behalf of any State.
2. The coastal State shall give appropriate publicity to any danger to navigation, of which it has knowledge, within its territorial sea.
Article 25  Rights of protection of the coastal State
1. The coastal State may take the necessary steps in its territorial sea to prevent passage which is not innocent.
2. In the case of ships proceeding to internal waters or a call at a port facility outside internal waters, the coastal State also has the right to take the necessary steps to prevent any breach of the conditions to which admission of those ships to internal waters or such a call is subject.
3. The coastal State may, without discrimination in form or in fact among foreign ships, suspend temporarily in specified areas of its territorial sea the innocent passage of foreign ships if such suspension is essential for the protection of its security, including weapons exercises. Such suspension shall take effect only after having been duly published.
SECTION 4. CONTIGUOUS ZONE
Article 33  Contiguous zone
1. In a zone contiguous to its territorial sea, described as the contiguous zone, the coastal State may exercise the control necessary to:
(a) prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea;
(b) punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea.
2. The contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

PART V  EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE
Article 56  Rights, jurisdiction and duties of the coastal State in the exclusive economic zone
1. In the exclusive economic zone, the coastal State has:
(a) sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed and of the seabed and its subsoil, and with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the production of energy from the water, currents and winds;
(b) jurisdiction as provided for in the relevant provisions of this Convention with regard to:
(i) the establishment and use of artificial islands, installations and structures;
(ii) marine scientific research;
(iii) the protection and preservation of the marine environment;
(c) other rights and duties provided for in this Convention.
2. In exercising its rights and performing its duties under this Convention in the exclusive economic zone, the coastal State shall have due regard to the rights and duties of other States and shall act in a manner compatible with the provisions of this Convention.
3. The rights set out in this article with respect to the seabed and subsoil shall be exercised in accordance with Part VI.
Article 58  Rights and duties of other States in the exclusive economic zone
1. In the exclusive economic zone, all States, whether coastal or land-locked, enjoy, subject to the relevant provisions of this Convention, the freedoms referred to in article 87 of navigation and overflight and of the laying of submarine cables and pipelines, and other internationally lawful uses of the sea related to these freedoms, such as those associated with the operation of ships, aircraft and submarine cables and pipelines, and compatible with the other provisions of this Convention.
2. Articles 88 to 115 and other pertinent rules of international law apply to the exclusive economic zone in so far as they are not incompatible with this Part.
3. In exercising their rights and performing their duties under this Convention in the exclusive economic zone, States shall have due regard to the rights and duties of the coastal State and shall comply with the laws and regulations adopted by the coastal State in accordance with the provisions of this Convention and other rules of international law in so far as they are not incompatible with this Part.
Article 59  Basis for the resolution of conflicts regarding the attribution of rights and jurisdiction in the exclusive economic zone
In cases where this Convention does not attribute rights or jurisdiction to the coastal State or to other States within the exclusive economic zone, and a conflict arises between the interests of the coastal State and any other State or States, the conflict should be resolved on the basis of equity and in the light of all the relevant circumstances, taking into account the respective importance of the interests involved to the parties as well as to the international community as a whole.
Article 73  Enforcement of laws and regulations of the coastal State
1. The coastal State may, in the exercise of its sovereign rights to explore, exploit, conserve and manage the living resources in the exclusive economic zone, take such measures, including boarding, inspection, arrest and judicial proceedings, as may be necessary to ensure compliance with the laws and regulations adopted by it in conformity with this Convention.
2. Arrested vessels and their crews shall be promptly released upon the posting of reasonable bond or other security.
3. Coastal State penalties for violations of fisheries laws and regulations in the exclusive economic zone may not include imprisonment, in the absence of agreements to the contrary by the States concerned, or any other form of corporal punishment.
4. In cases of arrest or detention of foreign vessels the coastal State shall promptly notify the flag State, through appropriate channels, of the action taken and of any penalties subsequently imposed.

PART VI  CONTINENTAL SHELF

PART VII  HIGH SEAS
SECTION 1.  GENERAL PROVISIONS
Article 98  Duty to render assistance
1. Every State shall require the master of a ship flying its flag, in so far as he can do so without serious danger to the ship, the crew or the passengers:
(a) to render assistance to any person found at sea in danger of being lost;
(b) to proceed with all possible speed to the rescue of persons in distress, if informed of their need of assistance, in so far as such action may reasonably be expected of him;
(c) after a collision, to render assistance to the other ship, its crew and its passengers and, where possible, to inform the other ship of the name of his own ship, its port of registry and the nearest port at which it will call.
2. Every coastal State shall promote the establishment, operation and maintenance of an adequate and effective search and rescue service regarding safety on and over the sea and, where circumstances so require, by way of mutual regional arrangements cooperate with neighbouring States for this purpose.

海洋法に関する国際連合条約 (国連海洋法条約)
第2部 領海及び接続水域
第3節 領海における無害通航
A すべての船舶に適用される規則
第19条 無害通航の意味
1 通航は、沿岸国の平和、秩序又は安全を害しない限り、無害とされる。無害通航は、この条約及び国際法の他の規則に従って行わなければならない。
2 外国船舶の通航は、当該外国船舶が領海において次の活動のいずれかに従事する場合には、沿岸国の平和、秩序又は安全を害するものとされる。
a.武力による威嚇又は武力の行使であって、沿岸国の主権、領土保全若しくは政治的独立に対するもの又はその他の国際連合憲章に規定する国際法の諸原則に違反する方法によるもの
b.兵器(種類のいかんを問わない。)を用いる訓練又は演習
c.沿岸国の防衛又は安全を害することとなるような情報の収集を目的とする行為
d.沿岸国の防衛又は安全に影響を与えることを目的とする宣伝行為
e.航空機の発着又は積込み
f.軍事機器の発着又は積込み
g.沿岸国の通関上、財政上、出入国管理上又は衛生上の法令に違反する物品、通常又は人の積込み又は積卸し
h.この条約に違反する故意のかつ重大な汚染行為
i.漁獲活動
j.調査活動又は測量活動の実施
k.沿岸国の通信系又は他の施設への妨害を目的とする行為
l.通航に直接の関係を有しないその他の活動
第24条 沿岸国の義務
1 沿岸国は、この条約に定めるところによる場合を除くほか、領海における外国船舶の無害通航を妨害してはならない。沿岸国は、特に、この条約又はこの条約に従って制定される法令の適用に当たり、次のことを行ってはならない。
a.外国船舶に対し無害通航権を否定し又は害する実際上の効果を有する要件を課すること。
b.特定の国の船舶に対し又は特定の国へ、特定の国から若しくは特定の国のために貨物を運搬する船舶に対して法律上又は事実上の差別を行うこと。
2 沿岸国は、自国の領海内における航行上の危険で自国が知っているものを適当に公表する。
第25条 沿岸国の保護権
1 沿岸国は、無害でない通航を防止するため、自国の領海内において必要な措置をとることができる。
2 沿岸国は、また、船舶が内水に向かって航行している場合又は内水の外にある港湾施設に立ち寄る場合には、その船舶が内水に入るため又は内水の外にある港湾施設に立ち寄るために従うべき条件に違反することを防止するため、必要な措置をとる権利を有する。
3 沿岸国は、自国の安全の保護(兵器を用いる訓練を含む。)のため不可欠である場合には、その領海内の特定の水域において、外国船舶の間に法律上又は事実上の差別を設けることなく、外国船舶の無害通航を一時的に停止することができる。このような停止は、適当な方法で公表された後においてのみ、効力を有する。
第4節 接続水域
第33条 接続水域
1 治岸国は、自国の領海に接続する水域て接続水域といわれるものにおいて、次のことに必要な規制を行うことができる。
a.自国の領土又は領海内における通関上、財政上、出入国管理上又は衛生上の法令の違反を防止すること。
b.自国の領土又は領海内で行われた(a)の法令の違反を処罰すること。
2 接続水城は、領海の幅を測定するための基線から24海里を超えて拡張することができない。

第5部 排他的経済水域
第56条 排他的経済水域における沿岸国の権利、管轄権及び義務
1 沿岸国は、排他的経済水域において、次のものを有する。
a.海底の上部水域並びに海底及びその下の天然資源(生物資源であるか非生物資源であるかを問わない。)の探査、開発、保存及び管理のための主権的権利並びに排他的経済水域における経済的な目的で行われる探査及び開発のためのその他の活動(海水、海流及び風からのエネルギーの生産等)に関する主権的権利
b.この条約の関連する規定に基づく次の事項に関する管轄権
i.人工島、施設及び構築物の設置及び利用
ii.海洋の科学的調査
iii.海洋環境の保護及び保全
c.この条約に定めるその他の権利及び義務
2 沿岸国は、排他的経済水域においてこの条約により自国の権利を行使し及び自国の義務を履行するに当たり、他の国の権利及び義務に妥当な考慮を払うものとし、また、この条約と両立するように行動する。
3 この条に定める海底及びその下についての権利は、第6部の規定により行使する。
第58条 排他的経済水域における他の国の権利及び義務
1 すべての国は、沿岸国であるか内陸国であるかを問わず、排他的経済水域において、この条約の関連する規定に定めるところにより、第87条に定める航行及び上空飛行の自由並びに海底電線及び海底パイプラインの敷設の自由並びにこれらの自由に関連し及びこの条約のその他の規定と両立するその他の国際的に適法な海洋の利用(船舶及び航空機の運航並びに海底電線及び海底パイプラインの運用に係る海洋の利用等)の自由を享有する。
2 第88条から第115条までの規定及び国際法の他の関連する規則は、この部の規定に反しない限り、排他的経済水域について適用する。
3 いずれの国も、排他的経済水域においてこの条約により自国の権利を行使し及び自国の義務を履行するに当たり、沿岸国の権利及び義務に妥当な考慮を払うものとし、また、この部の規定に反しない限り、この条約及び国際法の他の規則に従って沿岸国が制定する法令を遵守する。
第59条 排他的経済水域における権利及び管轄権の帰属に関する紛争の解決のための基礎
この条約により排他的経済水域における権利又は管轄権が沿岸国又はその他の国に帰せられていない場合において、沿岸国とその他の国との間に利害の対立が生じたときは、その対立は、当事国及び国際社会全体にとっての利益の重要性を考慮して、衡平の原則に基づき、かつ、すべての関連する事情に照らして解決する。
第73条 沿岸国の法令の執行
1 沿岸国は、排他的経済水域において生物資源を探査し、開発し、保有し及び管理するための主権的権利を行使するに当たり、この条約に従って制定する法令の遵守を確保するために必要な措置(乗船、検査、拿捕及び司法上の手続を含む。)をとることができる。
2 拿捕された船舶及びその乗組員は、合理的な保証金の支払又は合理的な他の保証の提供の後に速やかに釈放される。
3 排他的経済水域における漁業に関する法令に対する違反について沿岸国が科する罰には、関係国の別段の合意がない限り拘禁を含めてはならず、また、その他のいかなる形態の身体刑も含めてはならない。
4 沿岸国は、外国船舶を拿捕し又は抑留した場合には、とられた措置及びその後科した罰について、適当な経路を通じて旗国に速やかに通報する。

第6部 大陸棚

第7部 公 海
第1節 総 則
第98条 援助を与える義務
1 いずれの国も、自国を旗国とする船舶の船長に対し、船舶、乗組員又は旅客に重大な危険を及ぼさない限度において次の措置をとることを要求する。
a.海上において生命の危険にさらされている者を発見したときは、その者に援助を与えること。
b.援助を必要とする旨の通報を受けたときは、当該船長に合理的に期待される限度において、可能な最高速力で遭難者の救助に赴くこと。
c.衝突したときは、相手の船舶並びにその乗組員及び旅客に援助を与え、また、可能なときは、自己の船舶の名称、船籍港及び寄港しようとする最も近い港を相手の船舶に知らせること。
2 いずれの沿岸国も、海上における安全に関する適切かつ実効的な捜索及び救助の機関の設置、運営及び維持を促進し、また、状況により必要とされるときは、このため、相互間の地域的な取極により隣接国と協力する。

U.S.-Japan Summit Meetings 日米首脳会談 Vol.3(Obama’s visit to Hiroshima Vol.3)

Here is just a part of Tweets related to the visit, war, peace, politics, science, et al (through noon on August 9 (JST)). [All the below are in English.]

Praying for peace in Nagasaki | @nhk_world_news

Nagasaki, 1945: “The world did not need your experiment” | @jricole

Hiroshima wrongly overshadows Nagasaki says @StimsonCenter’s Michael Krepon | @ReThinkDefense

Remembering Hiroshima and Nagasaki with George Shultz and Henry Kissinger, via @NTI_WMD | @ReThinkDefense

Inspired by Nagasaki’s steadfast commitment to the pursuit of peace. | @CarolineKennedy

The great science behind the terrifying history of the atomic bomb – great piece by @nevertoocurious | @kemal_atlay

“Fat Man” was dropped on Nagasaki on Aug 9, 1945, causing Japan to surrender | @newsflicks

This alone highlights need for diplomacy and non-proliferation: What Nagasaki looked like before and after the bomb | @JohnDAxelrod

#HiroshimaDay may have been yesterday, but the effects of a nuclear bomb are long-lasting | @ReThinkDefense

71 years ago today, this was the headline for @nytimes. | @ReThinkDefense

Must-watch: Hiroshima survivor Setsuko Thurlow talks about her life at @ArmsControlNow | @ReThinkDefense

Japan calls for a nuclear weapons free world & for all world leaders to visit | @ReThinkDefense

Obama’s Hiroshima trip stirs debate on Truman’s fateful choice | @ThePartykaGroup

Apology Diplomacy at Hiroshima: my 2010 article in @TheAtlantic | @profLind

On anniversary of Hiroshima bombing, re-up of my piece about memory and reconciliation in US-Japan relations | @profLind

6 August 1945 the Hiroshima explosion recorded at 8.15 a.m. on the remains of a wrist watch found in the ruins | @UN_Photo

Read Harry Truman’s statement on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 | @Miller_Center

Hiroshima: President Obama and Harry Truman. | @IWF

Obama’s visit to Hiroshima, contextualized via the Truman Library: President Barack Obama is the first sitting U.S.… | @POLSMiami

Truman’s note to Stalin about dropping atomic bomb on Hiroshima #HiroshimaVisit | @Danovate

The Christian answer to all this meaningless suffering is more suffering, willingness to suffer for one’s enemy… | @CosmosTheInLost

Why 71 years after Hiroshima every baby born in 2016 contains nuclear radiation | @3tags_org

The decision to destroy Hiroshima and Nagasaki was a political not a military decision. | @NatCounterPunch

7 stories from Hiroshima and Nagasaki on the 71st anniversary of the nuclear strike | @TIME

On this day in 1945, the US dropped the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima. See the aftermath | @LIFE

Today in history: The United States drops the “Little Boy” atomic bomb on Hiroshima, killing 70,000 instantly. | @ForeignAffairs

N Korea’s ballistic missile launch lands in Japan’s EEZ, escalating regional tensions | @nukes_of_hazard

@KingstonAReif: Reducing our commitment to#Japanwould ultimately increase threat by nuclear weapons to the US” | @ArmsControlNow

Hiroshima and Nagasaki push for @POTUS to support nuclear arms control efforts in powerful new letter. | @nukes_of_hazard

Still time to advance @POTUS vision of a safer world. “A Nuclear Legacy Within Reach” | @DarylGKimball

U.S.-Japan Summit Meetings 日米首脳会談 Vol.2(Obama’s visit to Hiroshima Vol.2)

Here is just a part of Twitter articles related to the visit (through early August 6 (JST)). [All the below are in English.]

On Aug. 6, 1945, an A-bomb devastated Hiroshima, where Obama paid his respects this year. | @The_Japan_News

Today on The Bridge @MarcM_Tweets looks at Pres Obama’s Hiroshima comments and wonders if the Asia Pivot has begun. | @Strategy_Bridge

As Obama touches down in Hiroshima, @FitzpatrickIISS reflects on the impact of his visit | @IISS_org

Japan remembers Hiroshima, urges world to follow Obama and visit | @ReutersWorld

Obama’s Hiroshima rhetoric obscures a growing role for nuclear weapons, write Stephan Frühling and @oneil_ak | @LowyInstitute

“Obama’s Hiroshima rhetoric obscures growing role for nuclear weapons” – Stephan Fruehling #ANU_SDSC | @ANUBellSchool

Obama’s Prague vision, Hiroshima visit undermined by Republicans & Putin – @MilesPomper @MarkThompson_DC in @TIME | @CNS_Updates

Only nuclear weapons can turn a small confrontation into a catastrophe like the one Obama commemorated in Hiroshima | @ProSyn

Obama in Hiroshima: A Mandate for Looking Back #twitterstorians | @The_OAH

Nukes Will Be Obama’s Legacy @johnfeffer | @myfairobserver

Obama called for a moral revolution at Hiroshima. Will he lead it? | @americamag

At Hiroshima, President Obama spoke eloquently against nuclear weapons. But do his policies send the same message? | @BosPublicRadio

Dan Sneider in @nippon_en: “The best judgment of the impact of Obama’s Hiroshima visit may be what follows…” | @StanfordSAPARC

In Hiroshima President Obama Can Help Save History leadership | @Real_Leaders

Obama, Truman and Hiroshima #culture | @COZMOPOLIS

Hibakusha group says Obama Hiroshima speech ‘avoided responsibility’ via the Japan Times | @TheAtomicAge

Overwhelming majority in Japan & esp Hiroshima think of President Obama’s visit as an implicit apology | @LSEUSAblog

Japan atomic bomb survivors criticise Obama’s Hiroshima speech | @France24_en

Obama’s Ironic Visit to Hiroshima | @opednews

How President Obama’s recent visit to Hiroshima makes the world more dangerous | @theTrumpet_com

At Hiroshima, Obama Asks Fundamental Questions About Science And War | @mrjimmc

Take a look at the context behind President Obama’s trip to Hiroshima | @amsecproject

Pres. Obama calls for a “moral revolution” w/ regard to nuclear weapons. Read his full Hiroshima speech here | @nextgenshapers

Photo of Obama, origami cranes on display at A-bomb museum in Hiroshima | @DaiwaFoundation

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum places Pres Obama’s origami cranes on display @japantimes | @Stimson_EAsia

ICYMI: President Obama’s visit to Hiroshima last month. Here’s the full length of his speech (video)…. | @NYPeaceFilmFest

Preliminary Reflections on Political Forgiveness — a compelling new policy brief from @wendyrsherman @BelferCenter | @HarvardAsh

姉妹都市 Vol.3(Tripartite Economic Alliance ロサンゼルスLA=オークランドAK=広州GZ 三市経済連携 Vol.1)

今日は”サミット”の話、と言っても先月下旬の議長国日本・伊勢志摩G7の話ではありません。〔以下ツイッターリンクは中国の広州市Guangzhouも含めてEnglish、日本の各市町のホームページはそれぞれ。〕

ロサンゼルス市(LA、人口380万人、アメリカ。参考:@MayorOfLA 市長)・オークランド市(AK、市人口40万人強・都市圏人口150万人、ニュージーランド。参考:@Auckland_NZ 市役所)・広州市(GZ、人口1300万人、中国。参考:@Guangzhou_City 市役所)の相互に姉妹都市である三市による Tripartite Economic Summit 2016 三市経済サミット が先月中旬にオークランドで開催されました。21世紀の都市間交流のあり方を打ち立てるべく2014年11月に世界初の三市経済連携協定(Tripartite Economic Alliance agreement)が結ばれ、初回”サミット”が昨年6月にロサンゼルスで開催されたとのことです。

都市間交流・地域間交流は一対一・文化交流という形である印象がありますが、太平洋を跨いだ三大都市の継続的な経済連携枠組みで世界初というのは第一印象としてはインパクトがあります。もちろん細部を少しずつ継続的に理解して行く必要がありますが、民間企業が収益を上げるのに役に立つ経済連携の形を取れば地方公共団体にも(もちろん中央政府にも)予算的労働的に負担がかからないということは言えます。また、人間で言えば、二人の方が突っ込んだ内容を話せるけど三人以上の枠組みの方が派手だったり長持ちしたりもする(あくまで参考:下記※)、というような感じでしょうか。従来型交流と適宜並行して進むと良さそうです。
なお、上記三市の日本の姉妹都市は、ロサンゼルス市とは名古屋市(参考:名古屋市英語ホームページ)、オークランド市とは大阪市(参考:大阪市英語ホームページ)・福岡市(参考:福岡市英語ホームページ)・富岡町(友好都市。参考:福島県富岡町ホームページ。)・宇都宮市(参考:宇都宮市ホームページ)・品川区(参考:品川区英語ホームページ)、広州市とは福岡市、のようです。また、広州市の姉妹都市には、当都市経済連携には入っておらず、ニュージーランドとは隣国かつ同盟国であるオーストラリアのシドニー市(参考:@cityofsydney 市役所)もあり、先月で両市姉妹都市30年になり喜ばしいとの報道が何度か目に入ってきました。シドニー市の姉妹都市には日本の名古屋市もあります。

※ 各人が手抜き無しに努力を怠らないチームの人数は、例えばWhy Less Is More in Teams | Mark de Rond では、4人とされています。他方、適度な頑張りが必要となる姉妹都市経済連携のような組織間の持続的試みにおいては、検証等必要ですが、各者が一定程度以上望んでいれば3者というのが一番長持ちしそうだと第一感では思いました。

U.S.-Japan Summit Meetings 日米首脳会談 Vol.1(Obama’s visit to Hiroshima Vol.1)

Here is just a part of articles concerning the visit (through May 27). [All the below are in English.]

Obama’s Hiroshima visit strengthens his call for nuclear disarmament | Sharon Squassoni

Text of President Obama’s speech in Hiroshima, Japan

Obama Makes Historic Visit To Hiroshima Memorial Peace Park [with Full Remarks (17:21)] | ELISE HU & CAMILA DOMONOSKE

Obama should not apologise for Hiroshima. He should heed its lessons | Simon Jenkins

Hiroshima | JOHN HERSEY

[Editorial] The Guardian view on Obama in Hiroshima: facing a nuclear past, not fixing a post-nuclear future

More and more Americans question the Hiroshima bombing. But would they do it again? Maybe. | Adam Taylor

Obama at Hiroshima: What to watch for | Kevin Liptak

Bombing Hiroshima changed the world, but it didn’t end WWII | Oliver Stone and Peter Kuznick

NOT JUST WAR: HOW HIROSHIMA BECAME A WAR CRIME | JONATHAN HUNT

Hiroshima: Was the atomic bomb necessary? [Video] Mehdi Hasan asks if the US needed to drop the atomic bombs.

Nuclear-Free Aspirations of Obama, Abe Conflict with Reality

Why Obama Is Wrong to Focus on Hiroshima | Bruce Klingner

Obama should go to Hiroshima — but not for the reason he gave | Michael Auslin

President Obama Is Visiting Hiroshima. Why Not Pearl Harbor?: On the 75th anniversary of Pearl Harbor, what lessons does the U.S. need to relearn? | Victor Davis Hanson

5 Things That Should Happen When Obama Visits Hiroshima:The president’s decision was the right one and can make Japan-U.S. ties even stronger. | Scott W. Harold

FPI Bulletin: The Enduring Value of the U.S.-Japanese Alliance | David Adesnik

WHAT THE POPE SAW AT HIROSHIMA | Robin Wright

The Last Days of Imperial Japan | CFR

For Japan, a G7 to Remember | Sheila A. Smith