#Coronavirus #コロナウイルス Vol.19(vaccines ワクチン) / U.S.A. アメリカ Vol.129(New York ニューヨーク州 Vol.4 / Massachusetts マサチューセッツ州 Vol.3: pharmaceutical corporations 製薬会社 – Pfizer ファイザー社、Moderna モデルナ社)

All the below links, excerpts, and tweets are in English.
cf.
U.S.A. アメリカ Vol.107(New York ニューヨーク州 Vol.2: pharmaceutical corporations 製薬会社)
U.S.A. アメリカ Vol.113(Massachusetts マサチューセッツ州 Vol.2: pharmaceutical corporations 製薬会社)

取り急ぎ以下貼っておきます。

Pfizer And Moderna Face Their Biggest Challenge: Vaccinating The World (12/03/2020) | @IBDinvestors
… The obstacles can’t be overestimated, experts say. The vaccine supply chain is mindbogglingly complex. It involves local, state and federal authorities as well as hospitals, pharmacies and doctors’ offices.
The two most advanced coronavirus vaccines must be stored at specific temperatures and given in two doses several weeks apart. Stakeholders must keep tabs on who gets which vaccine and when. And don’t forget the public perception challenges of vaccinating people with drugs that went through clinical testing at record speeds.
Experts say 60% to 80% of the world must be vaccinated to achieve herd immunity. It will be many months – or years – before that happens as vaccine makers iron out supply constraints. Besides the Covid-19 vaccine companies themselves, a raft of other parties like drug distribution company McKesson (MCK) will be involved.
…the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The agency has overseen vaccine distribution in the U.S. for decades, including the national effort to vaccinate during the H1N1 influenza pandemic in 2009.
The coronavirus vaccination effort will probably look similar to that…
First, vaccination sites will need to enroll in the CDC’s Covid-19 vaccine distribution program. These sites will include doctors’ offices, clinics, hospitals and pharmacies. The program ensures these locations have enough well-trained staff, the right equipment and space to vaccinate large numbers of people.
Then, the vaccination sites will request doses of the coronavirus vaccine through a state agency…
Public health officials will then confirm the vaccination site is approved. If so, the order will head to the CDC. …
In August, the CDC tapped McKesson to help it distribute all coronavirus vaccines. …McKesson could rely on UPS, DHL and FedEx trucks to help it get the job done.
Pfizer, on the other hand, has a bigger challenge. The company’s coronavirus vaccine must be stored at ultracold temperatures. How cold? Penguins would find these temperatures chilly. …
Moderna’s vaccine can live in a standard refrigerator for 30 days. It can also be frozen for six months. Once thawed, providers must administer the vaccine within 12 hours – or toss it out. That creates a logistical challenge for transportation.
“Moderna will be heavily reliant on external suppliers…It will be using companies like CryoPort (CYRX), Stirling Ultracold and CH Robinson (CHRW) to work out cold chain logistics plus storage and shipping management.” …
…Pfizer has developed a special shipping container that can store the coronavirus vaccine for 10 days unopened…
The vaccine can be stored in an ultracold freezer for up to six months. It can stay in the shipping container for up to 30 days when replenished with dry ice every five days. Or, the drug can be stored for five days in a standard refrigerator.
…the strict storage requirements limit where Pfizer’s vaccine can be used. Those ultracold freezers cost about $20,000 apiece. …
…”Imagine getting one dose to Appalachia, a rural community. Now imagine having to come back and making sure everyone who got the first dose also gets the second one. That’s a challenge.”
…it’s likely the Pfizer vaccine will go to more populous locations with cold-storage capabilities. Coronavirus vaccine stock Moderna will probably send its drug to more rural communities.
…expects Pfizer to generate $875 million in coronavirus vaccine sales in 2020 and $7.25 billion in 2021. Eventually, that will trend down to $700 million to $800 million each year, depending on how often people need booster shots of the vaccine. …
“The drugmaker that gets this thing out first…Overnight, Pfizer becomes one of the most loved brands in America. It’s the McDonald’s (MCD) of the pharma industry.”
COVID19 vaccine-efforts

Pfizer to Ship Half as Many Coronavirus Vaccine Doses as Originally Planned in Initial Phase (12/03/2020) | @themotleyfool
…”Scaling up the raw material supply chain took longer than expected, and it’s important to highlight that the outcome of the clinical trial was somewhat later than the initial projection.”
BNT162b2, which showed an extremely high efficacy rate of 95% with no serious safety concerns in phase 3 clinical trials, has been submitted for similar approvals throughout the European Union, and with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In the wake of the U.K. approval, Pfizer and BioNTech anticipate decisions from other major regulators this month. …

Pfizer Scaled Back Vaccine Output Targets Earlier This Year (12/03/2020) | @business
…supply-chain problems caused the New York-based drugmaker to reduce the number of vaccines…led Pfizer shares to fall as much as 3.1% and caused the wider stock market to dip. The S&P 500 ended Thursday’s trading down 0.1%. …
Moderna Inc., which has also submitted a messenger RNA-based vaccine to the FDA for emergency clearance, said in a statement on Thursday it would have between 100 million and 125 million doses available globally in the first quarter of 2021. …

UK becomes the first to approve Pfizer-BioNTech Covid vaccine, rollout due next week (12/02/2020) | @CNBC
…with elderly people in care homes and medical workers first in line. …
“The government has today accepted the recommendation from the independent Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA)…
Pfizer and BioNTech announced in July an agreement with the U.K. to supply 30 million doses of its mRNA-based vaccine…increased to 40 million doses in early October. As a two-dose vaccine, the U.K. will have enough doses to vaccinate around a third of its 66 million population. …
“I consider this decision to be problematic and recommend that EU Member States do not repeat the process in the same way. A few weeks of thorough examination by the European Medicines Agency is better than a hasty emergency marketing authorization of a vaccine,” said Peter Liese, a member of German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s party…

Pfizer supply chain challenges led to slashing COVID-19 vaccine production target – WSJ (12/03/2020) | @reuters,@YahooFinance
…anticipates producing 50 million doses of its COVID-19 vaccine this year. That is down from an earlier target of 100 million doses. Pfizer’s vaccine relies on a two dose regimen, meaning 50 million doses is enough to inoculate 25 million people. …
David Perdue bought Pfizer stock – a week before company said it would develop a vaccine (12/03/2020) | @salon

Science and Technology 科学技術 Vol.14 / #Coronavirus #コロナウイルス Vol.15(pharmaceutical products 医薬品 Vol.6:drugs 治療薬)

All the below links and excerpts are in English.

Tocilizumab/Atlizumab(Actemra®)に係るリンクと当方作成の抜粋を取り急ぎ以下のとおり貼っておきます。

Effect of Tocilizumab vs Usual Care in Adults Hospitalized With COVID-19 and Moderate or Severe Pneumonia: A Randomized Clinical Trial (w PDF; 10/20/2020) | @JAMANetwork
PDF 
Tocilizumab1 JAMA1-1_keyTocilizumab2 JAMA1-2_effectTocilizumab3 JAMA1-3_effect

Efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients: A living systematic review and meta-analysis (w PDF; 11/05/2020) | @CMIJournal
Conclusion
Cumulative moderate certainty evidence shows that tocilizumab reduces the risk of mechanical ventilation in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. While RCTs showed that tocilizumab did not reduce short-term mortality, low certainty evidence from cohort studies suggests an association between tocilizumab and lower mortality. We did not observe a higher risk of infections or adverse events with tocilizumab use. This review will continuously evaluate the role of tocilizumab in COVID-19 treatment.

Efficacy of Tocilizumab on Patients With COVID-19 (08/24/2020) | @MGHMedicine,@genentech ClinicalTrials.gov @nlm_news
Brief Summary:
This is a randomized, double blind, multi-center study to evaluate the effects of tocilizumab compared to placebo on patient outcomes in participants with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and evidence of systemic inflammation.
The aim of this study is to test the effect of Tocilizumab on multi-organ dysfunction in a phase 3 randomized controlled trial among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection.
Specifically, as compared to placebo, we will test whether tocilizumab is associated with a reduction in multi-organ dysfunction among hospitalized COVID-19 adult patients with elevated inflammatory measures. Multi-organ dysfunction will be measured as the incidence of the following composite endpoint (mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, mechanical support, need for inotropes or vasopressors, liver dysfunction (increased bilirubin), and all-cause mortality). We will also assess multiple pre-specified secondary (exploratory) endpoints and safety endpoints.
We hypothesize that, as compared to placebo, tocilizumab will reduce transfer to the ICU, need for mechanical ventilation, increase rates of hospital discharge in patients diagnosed with severe COVID-19 infection and evidence of exaggerated inflammatory response.

New results from a once-promising therapy show the difficulty of treating covid-19: In one study, the drug, tocilizumab, reduced risk of death in ICU patients, but two others found negligible results with slightly different patients (10/21/2020) | @washingtonpost
Studies offer little hope for tocilizumab in treating COVID (10/20/2020) | @CIDRAP
Time to Reassess Tocilizumab’s Role in COVID-19 Pneumonia (10/20/2020) | @JAMANetwork
Association Between Early Treatment With Tocilizumab and Mortality Among Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19 (10/20/2020) | @JAMANetwork

Efficacy of Tocilizumab in Patients Hospitalized with Covid-19 (10/21/2020) | @NEJM
Tocilizumab for COVID-19? Three Studies Yield Mixed Findings (10/20/2020) | @JWatch
Tocilizumab for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. The single-arm TOCIVID-19 prospective trial (w PDF; 21/10/2020) | Journal of Translational Medicine
Appropriate use of tocilizumab in COVID-19 infection (w PDF; 10/2020) | International Journal of Infectious Diseases @ElsevierConnect
PDF 
Tocilizumab4 IJID_Turkey

Roche’s Actemra helps keep coronavirus patients off ventilators despite earlier trial flop (09/18/2020) | @FiercePharma
…Roche is also pairing Actemra with Gilead Sciences’ antiviral Veklury, better known as remdesivir, in the phase 3 Remdacta trial. Eli Lilly’s JAK arthritis med Olumiant combined with Veklury helped patients recover faster in a recent trial run by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

Tocilizumab/IL-6 Inhibitors | @RealTimeCOVID19
Case report: use of lenzilumab and tocilizumab for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019. | @WHO
Decreased Mortality in Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients Treated With Tocilizumab: A Rapid Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies (w PDF; 23/09/2020) | @OUPAcademic
Tocilizumab for treatment patients with COVID-19: Recommended medication for novel disease (09/16/2020) | @NCBI
Efficacy of tocilizumab in COVID‐19: A systematic review and meta‐analysis (w PDF; 12/09/2020) | @WileyGlobal
Glucocorticoids, tocilizumab may reduce complications in COVID-19-related cytokine storm (09/03/2020) | @HealioRheum
Tocilizumab among patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit: a multicentre observational study (w PDF; 08/14/2020) | @TheLancetRheum
Tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study (w PDF; 08/01/2020) | @TheLancetRheum
Chugai Starts Phase III Clinical Trial of Actemra for COVID-19 Pneumonia in Japan (04/08/2020) | @chugai_cc
What is the role of the IL-6 inhibitor tocilizumab (Actemra) in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)? (11/10/2020) | @Medscape

Science and Technology 科学技術 Vol.13 / #Coronavirus #コロナウイルス Vol.14(pharmaceutical products 医薬品 Vol.5:drugs 治療薬)

All the below links and excerpts are in English.

Convalescent plasma(回復期血漿療法)に係るリンクと当方作成の抜粋を取り急ぎ以下のとおり貼っておきます。

The FDA has authorized convalescent plasma treatment for coronavirus patients – but some scientists worry it’s too soon (08/26/2020) | @businessinsider
During the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic, doctors discovered they could treat sick patients with the blood of those who had already recovered. …
Antibodies develop in plasma, the liquid portion of blood – they’re part of our body’s natural response to a foreign pathogen. So the idea behind the treatment is to help sick people mount an antibody response to the virus by transferring plasma intravenously from those who already have antibodies.
“What we really need are drugs that, when given early, can prevent a symptomatic person from requiring hospitalization or very dramatically diminish the time that they’re symptomatic,” …
… Plasma must be transferred quickly from a donor to a recipient – and both must have compatible blood types. The quantity is also limited, since it depends on blood donations. …
A national study of 35,000 hospitalized coronavirus patients, which is still awaiting peer review, found that patients less than 80 years old who weren’t on a respirator and received plasma containing high levels of antibodies within three days of their diagnosis had a 35% lower mortality rate than those who were treated four or more days after their diagnosis.
The process of creating hyperimmune globulin involves pooling plasma from recovered patients and heat-treating it so that any remaining pathogens get destroyed. The result is a vial of medicine with consistent antibody levels that can easily be administered to patients. The drug focuses on the most common antibody found in blood ? immunoglobulin G (IgG) – which usually confers long-term immunity.
… The Mount Sinai Hospital … working with Emergent BioSolutions, a Maryland-based biopharmaceutical company, to develop a hyperimmune globulin product. …
… “The Fight Is In Us” … The coalition hopes to secure regulatory approval from the FDA by the end of 2020. …

Why we don’t know if convalescent plasma works to treat Covid-19 (08/29/2020) | @qz
… “There’s no money to be made in plasma,” says Jeffrey Henderson, a physician and infectious disease researcher at Washington University St. Louis. Because it’s a biological product, it can’t be patented or sold for a profit. As a result, no single research group or company has funded a large, randomized controlled trial of plasma, the highest standard of clinical evidence. …
It isn’t cheap: Between 2012 and 2018, the median cost of bringing a drug to market was $985 million, about $19 million of which goes to clinical research. Typically, drug companies are happy to invest. Once their product is approved, they can sell it at a price that makes up for the loss (and then some). …
…expanded access program (EAP), a network spearheaded by researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota…
… Eventually, the EAP program got some funding from the US Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority…
…Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York…

Takeda, CSL-led alliance starts scaling up production of COVID-19 plasma therapy as phase 3 kicks off: report (10/13/2020) | @fiercepharma
… The clinical batches were produced at Takeda’s U.S. facility in Georgia and CSL’s site in Bern, Switzerland. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in the U.S. is running the trial. …
Eli Lilly and Regeneron have reported encouraging results for their antibody cocktails, each of which combines two synthetic monoclonal antibodies. While those products have less antibody variety, they only used donated plasma to help identify the antibodies with the most promise in fighting COVID. …

DOD Awards $750,000 to Plasma Technologies, LLC for Manufacturing of Convalescent Plasma Products Using a Novel Process in Support of the U.S. COVID-19 Response (08/17/2020) | DOD
… The Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (JPEO-CBRND) partnered with HHS and the Army Contracting Command – Aberdeen Proving Ground (ACC-APG), to select Plasma Technologies, LLC for this cooperative agreement. Plasma Technologies, LLC, a plasma biologics technology company, is located in Charleston, South Carolina. …

Plasma Therapy Global Market Report 2020-30: Covid 19 Growth and Change (07/30/2020) | CISION
Major players in the plasma therapy market are Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Bio Products Laboratory Ltd., Arthrex, Inc., Biotest AG, China Biologic Products Holdings, Inc., DePuy Synthes Companies, CSL Limited, Grifols, S.A., Octapharma, and Terumo BCT, Inc. …
The global plasma therapy market is expected to grow from $187.67 million in 2019 to $246.95 million in 2020 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 31.6%. The growth is mainly attributed to the COVID-19 outbreak and the urgent need to treat a growing number of cases. …
… In March 2020, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited has initiated a plasma-therapy, Anti-SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal hyperimmune globulin (H-IG), which is termed as TAK-888 for treating COVID-19. The TAK-888 utilizes the plasma collected from convalescent donors who have been cured of COVID-19 and is administered to the patient suffering from COVID-19.

CoVIg-19 Plasma Alliance Builds Strong Momentum Through Expanded Membership and Clinical Trial Collaboration (05/07/2020) | @TakedaPharma
… In addition to those announced at its inception – Biotest, BPL, CSL Behring, LFB, Octapharma and Takeda – the Alliance welcomes new industry members ADMA Biologics, BioPharma Plasma, GC Pharma, and Sanquin. …
In parallel, the Alliance has confirmed it will work with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) at the NIH to test the safety, tolerability and efficacy of the hyperimmune therapy in adult patients with COVID-19. This global study is currently anticipated to start in the summer…
“Hyperimmune globulin therapy has the potential to be one of the earliest treatment options for COVID-19, and we look forward to working with NIAID and health authorities to bring this therapy to patients as early as possible,” …
… To amplify awareness, the Alliance has gained support from large organizations outside of the plasma industry. Examples of those offering resources to the Alliance include Microsoft and Uber Health. Microsoft is providing technology support, including the Alliance website and the Plasmabot for donor recruitment. The Plasmabot streamlines the process for a potential donor to quickly gain information about their nearest collection center from across the member network. In parallel, Uber Health has agreed to donate 25,000 round-trip rides to transport potentially eligible donors to and from plasma collection centers. …

Global Plasma Leaders Collaborate to Accelerate Development of Potential COVID-19 Hyperimmune Therapy (04/06/2020) | @TakedaPharma
Biotest, BPL, LFB, and Octapharma have joined an alliance formed by CSL Behring (ASX:CSL/USOTC:CSLLY) and Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (TSE:4502/NYSE:TAK) to develop a potential plasma-derived therapy for treating COVID-19. The alliance will begin immediately with the investigational development of one, unbranded anti-SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal hyperimmune immunoglobulin medicine…

Trump admin funds plasma company based in owner’s condo (02/11/2020) | @ABCNews
Plasma Technologies LLC, Pepcid, ApiJect Systems America, Novavax
ThermoGenesis and ImmuneCyte Joint Venture Developing Several Convalescent Plasma and Antibody Therapeutic Approaches Against COVID-19, Featured on FOX40 and Other Local News Outlets (04/24/2020) | @biospace
Takeda, Other Firms Test Covid-19 Convalescent-Plasma Treatment: NIH funds study of high antibody concentrations combined with the antiviral remdesivir (10/08/2020) | @WSJ

U.S.A. アメリカ Vol.128(Illinois イリノイ州 Vol.3: healthcare corporations ヘルスケア会社)

All the below link and tweets are in English.

取り急ぎ以下貼っておきます。

Illinois Vol.14 (corporations: Baxter International)

上記リンク内に無い本日までのツイート


 https://twitter.com/baxter_intl/status/1253397642891198464


 https://twitter.com/baxter_intl/status/1260972247440900097


 https://twitter.com/baxter_intl/status/1254872455186993153


 https://twitter.com/baxter_intl/status/1235582637282123778

ツイッター検索で 上記製薬会社名 及び Japan や 日本の5製薬会社各社名 を入れて出て来たもの

Australia オーストラリア Vol.10(pharmaceutical corporations 製薬会社)

All the below links and tweets are in English.

取り急ぎ以下貼っておきます。

CSL(豪)の子会社
Pennsylvania Vol.11 (corporations: CSL Behring) / Australia Vol.29
UK Vol.173 (pharmaceutical corporations: Seqirus) / Australia Vol.30

上記リンク内に無い本日までのツイート

ツイッター検索で 上記製薬会社名 及び Japan や 日本の5製薬会社各社名 を入れて出て来たもの

Germany ドイツ Vol.5(pharmaceutical corporations 製薬会社)

All the below link and tweets are in English.

取り急ぎ以下貼っておきます。

Germany Vol.23 (pharmaceutical corporations: BioNTech)

上記リンク内に無い本日までのツイート


ツイッター検索で 上記製薬会社名 及び Japan や 日本の5製薬会社各社名 を入れて出て来たもの

Science and Technology 科学技術 Vol.12(pharmaceutical products 医薬品 Vol.5:influenza vaccines インフルエンザワクチン)

All the below links and excerpts are in English.

取り急ぎ標記関連リンクと当方作成の抜粋を以下のとおり貼っておきます。

Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine | @CDCgov
FluVaccines_CDC1-table1FluVaccines_CDC2-recommended&viruses
Flu Vaccination
How do flu vaccines work?
Flu vaccines cause antibodies to develop in the body about two weeks after vaccination. These antibodies provide protection against infection with the viruses that are used to make the vaccine.
The seasonal flu vaccine protects against the influenza viruses that research indicates will be most common during the upcoming season. Most flu vaccines in the United States protect against four different flu viruses (“quadrivalent”); an influenza A (H1N1) virus, an influenza A (H3N2) virus, and two influenza B viruses. There are also some flu vaccines that protect against three different flu viruses (“trivalent”); an influenza A (H1N1) virus, an influenza A (H3N2) virus, and one influenza B virus. Two of the trivalent vaccines are designed specifically for people 65 and older to create a stronger immune response.
What kinds of flu vaccines are available?
CDC recommends use of any licensed, age-appropriate influenza vaccine during the 2020-2021 influenza season, including inactivated influenza vaccine [IIV], recombinant influenza vaccine [RIV], or live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). No preference is expressed for any influenza vaccine over another. Both trivalent (three-ingredient) and quadrivalent (four-ingredient) influenza vaccines will be available.
Quadrivalent flu vaccines include:
Standard-dose quadrivalent influenza shots that are manufactured using virus grown in eggs. These include Afluria Quadrivalent, Fluarix Quadrivalent, FluLaval Quadrivalent, and Fluzone Quadrivalent. Different influenza shots are licensed for different age groups. These four vaccines are approved for people 6 months of age and older. Most influenza shots are given in an arm muscle with a needle. One quadrivalent influenza shot (Afluria Quadrivalent) can be given either with a needle (for people aged 6 months and older) or with a jet injector (for people aged 18 through 64 years only). …
Are any of the available flu vaccines recommended over others?
…the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends…including inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV), or live attenuated nasal spray influenza vaccine (LAIV4)…
Who Should Not Be Vaccinated?
… Factors that can determine a person’s suitability for vaccination, or vaccination with a particular vaccine, include a person’s age, health (current and past) and any allergies to flu vaccine or its components. …
Flu and COVID-19
Does a flu vaccine increase your risk of getting COVID-19?
Vaccine Effectiveness
Can I get seasonal flu even though I got a flu vaccine this year?
What protection does a flu vaccine provide if I do get sick with flu?
Vaccine Benefits
What are the benefits of flu vaccination?
Vaccine Match
What if circulating viruses and the vaccine viruses are different?
Why is there sometimes not a good match between a vaccine virus and circulating viruses?
Flu viruses are constantly changing (called “antigenic drift”) ? they can change from one season to the next or they can even change within the course of one flu season. Experts must pick which viruses to include in the vaccine many months in advance in order for vaccine to be produced and delivered on time. …
… While all influenza viruses undergo changes when they are grown in eggs, changes in influenza A(H3N2) viruses are more likely to result in antigenic changes compared with changes in other influenza viruses. These so-called “egg-adapted changes” are present in most of the vaccine viruses recommended for use in egg-based vaccine production and may reduce their potential effectiveness against circulating influenza viruses. …
Vaccine Side Effects (What to Expect)
Can a flu vaccine give me flu?
No, a flu vaccine cannot cause flu illness. …
What side effects can occur after getting a flu vaccine?

Flu Vaccine (Flu Shot) | @MedicineNet
Facts you should know about the influenza vaccine (flu shot)
・Types of influenza (flu) vaccines include the injection (killed virus), recombinant (made without flu virus), and nasal spray vaccines (containing live virus). …
What is influenza (flu)?
… Flu is a respiratory infection, that is, an infection that develops primarily in the lungs. People often call respiratory infections caused by other viruses the flu, but this is incorrect. These other infections are usually categorized as URIs (upper respiratory infections) and have multiple causes. …
Influenza viruses are divided scientifically into three types, designated A, B, and C. Influenza types A and B are responsible for epidemics of respiratory illness that occur almost every winter. Influenza type C usually causes either a very mild respiratory illness or no symptoms at all; it does not cause epidemics and does not have the severe public health impact of influenza types A and B. Type A viruses are divided into subtypes and are named based on differences in two viral surface proteins called hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). There are 16 known H subtypes and nine known N subtypes. …
The so-called swine flu pandemic of 2009 was caused by a novel influenza A virus designated H1N1 based upon its surface protein types. This virus was originally referred to as swine flu because many of the genes in this new virus were very similar to influenza viruses that normally occur in pigs in North America. However, this virus was actually quite different from the typical swine flu viruses found in pigs.

Types of seasonal influenza vaccine | @WHO_Europe
Two types of influenza vaccine are widely available: inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV) and live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV). Traditionally, influenza vaccines (both IIV and LAIV) have been produced to protect against 3 different seasonal influenza viruses (also called trivalent vaccines). In most countries this is still the case and the current trivalent vaccines contain influenza A(H3N2), pandemic A(H1N1) and 1 of 2 influenza B lineage viruses. However, recently vaccines which protect against 4 different viruses, including both influenza B lineage viruses (quadrivalent vaccines), have become available in some countries. …
Annual selection of viruses
The composition of influenza vaccines (both IIV and LAIV) are updated annually by WHO based on information gathered from the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS)…

Flu vaccine | @NHSuk
Flu vaccine and coronavirus (COVID-19)
Flu vaccination is important because:
・if you’re at higher risk from coronavirus, you’re also more at risk of problems from flu
・if you get flu and coronavirus at the same time, research shows you’re more likely to be seriously ill
・it’ll help to reduce pressure on the NHS and social care staff who may be dealing with coronavirus
If you’ve had COVID-19, it’s safe to have the flu vaccine. It’ll be effective at helping to prevent flu.

Influenza Vaccine for the 2020-2021 Season | @US_FDA
Influenza Vaccine (Flu Shot and Nasal Spray) for Adults | @WebMD
Q&A on Influenza (English; 11/21/2019) | 厚生労働省

Science and Technology 科学技術 Vol.11 / #Coronavirus #コロナウイルス Vol.13(pharmaceutical products 医薬品 Vol.4:drugs 治療薬)

All the below links and excerpts are in English.

リンクと当方作成の抜粋を取り急ぎ以下のとおり貼っておきます。

COVID-19 (coronavirus) drugs: Are there any that work? | @MayoClinic
Remdesivir
Antiviral drugs. In addition to remdesivir, other antiviral drugs being tested include favipiravir and merimepodib. …
Dexamethasone. …reduces the risk for deaths by about 30% for people on ventilators and by about 20% for people who needed supplemental oxygen. … Other corticosteroids, such as prednisone, methylprednisolone or hydrocortisone, may be used if dexamethasone isn’t available. However, their effectiveness isn’t yet known. …
Anti-inflammatory therapy.
Immune-based therapy. … Convalescent plasma is blood donated by people who’ve recovered from COVID-19. …mesenchymal stem cells and monoclonal antibodies.
・… Researchers study amlodipine and losartan. But it’s not yet…
Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine. These malaria drugs… the FDA withdrew that authorization…
Drugs to prevent COVID-19.

The Latest Research on COVID-19 Treatments and Medications in the Pipeline (10/23/2020) | @GoodRx
Commonly used treatments for COVID-19 and therapies with emergency use authorizations (EUAs)
Remdesivir (Veklury)
Dexamethasone
Convalescent plasma
New treatments in early phase studies
Monoclonal antibodies (MABs) … Regeneron and Eli Lilly are two companies that both have MABs in development for COVID-19, currently called REGN-COV2 and LY-CoV555, respectively. …
Treatments that the NIH recommend against using for COVID-19
Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine
Azithromycin … One research group looked at azithromycin in combination with hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19. They reported that 93% of patients cleared the virus after 8 days, but there was no control group so we don’t know if people would have cleared the virus on their own without the medications. There are concerns about potentially serious side effects when using azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine together. The NIH currently recommends against using azithromycin for COVID-19.
Tocilizumab (Actemra) and other IL-6 inhibitors … By blocking IL-6, tocilizumab helps to calm down the immune system and is believed to also help with managing cytokine storms.
Research on tocilizumab started with a study from France, which reported that people who got tocilizumab were less likely to require ventilation or die. Another study from Italy found that those who got tocilizumab had a lower death rate, though about the same percentage of patients from both groups needed ventilators. On the other hand, tocilizumab did not help COVID-19 patients with early-stage pneumonia. A phase 3 study from the manufacturer also found that tocilizumab did not help for hospitalized COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia. …
… They showed that patients with severe symptoms who got Kevzara did worse compared to placebo, but patients who had even more severe (critical) symptoms improved compared to placebo. …
Kinase inhibitors … acalabrutinib (Calquence); baricitinib (Olumiant); ruxolitinib (Jakafi); tofacitinib (Xeljanz) …
Interferons
Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir)
Ivermectin
Repurposed medications with minimal COVID-19 data
Tamiflu (oseltamivir)
Avigan (favipiravir) and other antiviral medications … In vitro studies have shown that high doses of favipiravir were able to prevent human cells from being infected with SARS-CoV-2. …
Colcrys (colchicine)

Coronavirus Drug and Treatment Tracker (10/29/2020) | @nytimes
Coronavirus_Treatment-Tracker-nytimes
Blocking the Virus – Antivirals can stop viruses such as H.I.V. and hepatitis C from hijacking our cells. …
Remdesivir
Favipiravir
Molnupiravir
Recombinant ACE-2
Ivermectin
Oleandrin
Lopinavir and ritonavir
Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine
Mimicking the Immune System -… Drugs might help people who can’t mount an adequate defense.
Convalescent plasma
Monoclonal antibodies
Interferons
Putting Out Friendly Fire – The most severe symptoms of Covid-19 are the result of the immune system’s overreaction to the virus. …
Dexamethasone and Other Corticosteroids
Cytokine Inhibitors
Blood filtration systems
Stem cells
Other Treatments
Pseudoscience and Fraud

Treatments for COVID-19: What helps, what doesn’t, and what’s in the pipeline (10/23/2020) | @HarvardHealth

U.S.A. Vol.126(Joe Biden For President)

The below excerpts are on our own.

BUILD BACK BETTER: JOE BIDEN’S JOBS AND ECONOMIC RECOVERY PLAN FOR WORKING FAMILIES
… In this time of crisis, Joe Biden has a plan to create millions of good-paying jobs and to give America’s working families the tools, choices, and freedom they need to build back better.
That starts with a real strategy to deal with the pandemic. We can’t solve the jobs crisis until we solve the public health crisis. …
Biden will also provide further immediate relief to working families, small businesses, and communities. Biden will:
– Provide state, local, and tribal governments with the aid they need so educators, firefighters and other essential workers aren’t being laid off.
– Extend COVID crisis unemployment insurance to help those who are out of work.
– Provide a comeback package for Main Street businesses and entrepreneurs.
And, Biden will immediately put people to work by enlisting them to help fight the pandemic, including through a Public Health Jobs Corps.
… The Biden plan will mobilize the American people in service of four bold, national efforts to address four great national challenges. As President, Biden will:
– Mobilize American manufacturing and innovation to ensure that the future is made in America, and in all of America. …
– Mobilize American ingenuity to build a modern infrastructure and an equitable, clean energy future. …
– Mobilize American talent and heart to build a 21st century caregiving and education workforce which will help ease the burden of care for working parents, especially women. …
– Mobilize across the board to advance racial equity in America. …
Building back better means an updated social contract that treats American workers and working families as essential at all times, not just times of crisis…a decent wage, at least $15 per hour…universal paid sick days and 12 weeks of paid family and medical leave…
Building back better means helping small businesses and entrepreneurs come out the other side of this crisis strong, while demanding more from corporate America. …
…reversing some of Trump’s tax cuts for corporations and imposing common-sense tax reforms that finally make sure the wealthiest Americans pay their fair share.

A TALE OF TWO TAX POLICIES: TRUMP REWARDS WEALTH, BIDEN REWARDS WORK
I. Trump’s Tax Proposal In An Economic Crisis: A New Billionaire Tax Cut
… In Trump’s America, a working family making $65,000 will pay 22% on every extra dollar they earn, not including payroll taxes, while billionaires will pay just 15% on their profits from investments. …
II. Trump’s Tax Record: Billions For Foreign Investors And Large Multinational Corporations
… In 2018, in the wake of the Trump tax giveaway, 91 companies in the Fortune 500 paid no federal taxes on their income and another 56 paid less than 5 percent. …
Just a few examples of the harmful impact of Trump’s corporate tax giveaway include:
– Wells Fargo saved nearly $6.5 billion from the tax giveaway in 2018 and 2019, then authorized $40 billion worth of stock buybacks, raised interest rates on borrowers, and announced that it would lay off up to 26,000 workers.
– The pharmaceutical giant AbbVie received a $1.3 billion tax handout, announced $10 billion worth of buybacks, then increased prices for more than 10 of its products, including the arthritis medication, Humira.
– JPMorgan Chase pocketed $8.76 billion in tax breaks in 2018 and 2019 and yet last year still charged consumers $2 billion in overdraft fees, and cut hundreds of jobs.
– Harley-Davidson announced it would repurchase almost $700 million worth of its own stock, slash 350 manufacturing jobs, and shift some of its production overseas.
– AT&T cut thousands of jobs, while Trump gave them $1 billion in federal contracts and a $3 billion per year tax cut.
– Boeing offshored more than 2,000 U.S. jobs and announced billions in stock buybacks while receiving $29 billion in contracts and a $1.1 billion tax cut from Trump.
III. Biden’s Plan: Make The Wealthy And Corporations Pay Their Fair Share, And Provide Tax Relief For Working Families
… Joe Biden will not raise taxes on anyone making less than $400,000. Period. But he will ask wealthy Americans and big corporations to pay their fair share, including by:
– Raising the corporate tax rate to 28 percent.
– Requiring a true minimum tax on ALL foreign earnings of United States companies located overseas so that we do our part to put an end to the global race to the bottom that rewards global tax havens. This will be 21% — TWICE the rate of the Trump offshoring tax rate and will apply to all income.
– Imposing a tax penalty on corporations that ship jobs overseas in order to sell products back to America.
– Imposing a 15% minimum tax on book income so that no corporation gets away with paying no taxes.
– Raising the top individual income rate back to 39.6 percent.
– Asking those making more than $1 million to pay the same rate on investment income that they do on their wages.

THE BIDEN PLAN TO BUILD A MODERN, SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE AND AN EQUITABLE CLEAN ENERGY FUTURE
… Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, he ignored public health experts, praised the Chinese government, and failed to take the actions needed to protect the American people. …
Just as with COVID-19, Donald Trump has denied science and failed to step up in the face of the climate crisis. He has called it a hoax. He has allowed our infrastructure to deteriorate and farmers’ fields to flood. He has held back American workers from leading the world on clean energy, giving China and other countries a free pass to outcompete us in key technologies and the jobs that come with them. …
… He will launch a national effort aimed at creating the jobs we need to build a modern, sustainable infrastructure now and deliver an equitable clean energy future.
… Biden will make a $2 trillion accelerated investment…
– Infrastructure:…from roads and bridges to green spaces and water systems to electricity grids and universal broadband…
– Auto Industry: Create 1 million new jobs…
– Transit: Provide every American city with 100,000 or more residents with high-quality, zero-emissions public transportation options through flexible federal investments with strong labor protections…
– Power Sector:…a carbon pollution-free power sector by 2035. …
– Buildings: Upgrade 4 million buildings and weatherize 2 million homes over 4 years, creating at least 1 million good-paying jobs with a choice to join a union…
– Housing: Spur the construction of 1.5 million sustainable homes and housing units.
– Innovation: Drive dramatic cost reductions in critical clean energy technologies, including battery storage, negative emissions technologies, the next generation of building materials, renewable hydrogen, and advanced nuclear…
– Agriculture and Conservation: Create jobs in climate-smart agriculture, resilience, and conservation, including 250,000 jobs plugging abandoned oil and natural gas wells and reclaiming abandoned coal, hardrock, and uranium mines…
– Environmental Justice…
Biden also reaffirms his commitment to fulfill our obligation to the workers and communities who powered our industrial revolution and decades of economic growth, as outlined in his original climate plan. …
– BUILD A MODERN INFRASTRUCTURE …
– POSITION THE AMERICAN AUTO INDUSTRY TO WIN THE 21ST CENTURY …
– CREATE MILLIONS OF JOBS PRODUCING CLEAN ELECTRIC POWER FOR AMERICAN FAMILIES AND BUSINESSES …
– UPGRADE THE BUILDING SECTOR: RETROFITTING BUILDINGS, UPGRADING SCHOOLS, AND BUILDING HOMES ACROSS AMERICA …
– PURSUE A HISTORIC INVESTMENT IN CLEAN ENERGY INNOVATION … A major focus of Biden’s commitment to increase federal procurement by $400 billion in his first term…
– INVEST IN SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND CONSERVATION …
– SECURE ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE AND CREATE EQUITABLE ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY …

LIFT EVERY VOICE: THE BIDEN PLAN FOR BLACK AMERICA
THE BIDEN AGENDA FOR THE LATINO COMMUNITY

BIDEN-SANDERS UNITY TASK FORCE RECOMMENDATIONS (PDF)

U.S.A. Vol.125(Donald J. Trump for President)

The below excerpts are on our own.

President Donald J. Trump Achievements – Making America Great Again –
Economy And Jobs
Under President Trump’s leadership, Congress passed historic tax cuts and relief for hard-working Americans. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act:
– Is the first major tax reform signed in 30 years.
– Provided tax relief for 82% of middle-class families.
– Doubled the Child Tax Credit proving an additional $1,000 per child in tax relief for working parents.
– Nearly doubled the standard deduction, a change that simplified the tax filing process for millions of Americans.
– Cut taxes for small business by 20%, providing $415 billion in tax relief for small business owners.
– Alleviated the tax burden on over 500 companies. who used those savings to fund bonuses, wage increases for 4.8 million workers.
– Spurred new investments into the American economy, after it was passed businesses invested $482 billion into new American projects.
– Repealed Obamacare’s burdensome individual mandate.
– Made U.S. companies competitive on the world stage, lowering the corporate tax rate from one of the highest in the industrialized world (35%) to 21%.
U.S. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth has soared under President Trump, topping 3% in 4 quarters under his administration.
– 2018 annual GDP growth was 2.9%
– In the first quarter of 2019 GDP growth was 3.1%
President Trump is unleashing economic growth and jobs. Since his election, the Trump administration’s pro-growth policies have generated 6 million new jobs, the unemployment rate has fallen to its lowest point in 50 years, and wages have grown at more than 3% for 10 months in a row.
– The manufacturing industry created nearly half a million new jobs.
– 625,000 new construction jobs have been created since President Trump took office.
– Hispanic, Asian and African American unemployment rates have all reached record lows under President Trump.
– There are more than a million more job openings than unemployed persons in the U.S.
President Trump signed an executive order that expanded federally funded apprenticeship programs and on-the-job training, to provide an alternative for those looking to gain in demand skills that lack the resources to attend four year universities.
– The executive order set in motion a new process that makes it easier for businesses to create and scale apprenticeship programs, providing many more Americans access to an affordable education that leads to a well-paying job.
– The Workforce Development Advisory Council established by President Trump’s executive order has already created on-the-job training opportunities for 6.5 million Americans.
– The Trump administration prioritized the economic empowerment of women at home and across the globe.
– The Trump Administration launched the Women’s Global Development and Prosperity (W-GDP) Initiative, the first-ever whole-of-government approach focused on advancing women’s full and free participation in the global economy and allocated $50 million for the fund.

Trade & Foreign Policy
Regulation
Law And Justice
Government Accountability

Infrastructure
The Trump Administration allocated $50 billion to empower rural America to address the infrastructure needs of their communities
– 80 percent of the Rural Infrastructure Program funds will go directly to the governor of each state as determined by a formula.
– 20 percent of the Rural Infrastructure Program funds will be provided to selected states that apply for Rural Performance Grants.
President Trump’s plan provides states the flexibility they need to address the unique needs of each community.
– The federal funding provided by the president’s plan will not be awarded in pre-packaged, asset-specific amounts, as is often the case with federal programs, giving states the freedom to spend the money where it’s needed most.
– Instead, funds provided under the president’s proposal will go directly to the governor’s office of the state receiving funds allowing governors to make investments based on the individual infrastructure needs of their communities.

Education
Immigration
National Security And Defense
Land and Agriculture

Energy And Environment
The Department of the Interior proposed its largest oil and gas lease of over 78 million acres in the Gulf of Mexico.
– President Trump signed an Executive Order to expand offshore oil and gas drilling and open more leases to develop offshore drilling.
President Trump and his administration acted aggressively to increase exports of energy resources to the global market.
– This allowed financing for coal and fossil energy projects.
– The Department of Energy announced the approval of the Lake Charles Liquefied Natural Gas terminal.
– American LNG export opportunities increased under the Trump administration.
President Trump has approved the infrastructure and provided the resources needed to unleash oil and gas production in the U.S.
– The administration approved the Keystone XL and Dakota Access pipelines, supporting an estimated total of 42,000 jobs and $2 billion in wages.
– The administration announced the approval of the New Burgos Pipeline, a cross-border project that will export U.S. gasoline to Mexico.
– The Trump administration reversed President Obama’s moratorium on new leases for oil and gas development on federal lands.
President Trump rescinded President Obama’s costly Clean Power Plan and instead has proposed the Affordable Clean Energy Rule.
– According to NERA Economic Consulting, the CPP would have increased electricity rates by as much as 14 percent, costing American households up to $79 billion.
– The Affordable Clean Energy Rule will reduce greenhouse gasses, empower states, promote energy independence, and facilitate economic growth and job creation
In addition to the Clean Power Plan, the Trump administration has rescinded many costly Obama-Era regulations.
– The EPA has rescinded President Obama’s methane emissions rule that would cost American energy developers an estimated $530 million annually.
– The EPA is reviewing a rule that if rescinded would relax costly fuel standards and save $340 billion in regulatory costs.
President Trump announced his intent to withdraw the U.S. from the unfair Paris Climate Agreement.
In May 2017, the Trump administration created a Superfund task force designed to streamline the Superfund cleanup program.
– The Superfund task force has designated 10 sites for “immediate, intense action.”

Healthcare
President Trump has worked to improve access to affordable quality health care.
– The Department of Agriculture provided more than $1 billion in FY2017 to be used to improve access to health care services for 2.5 million people in rural communities.
– The Trump administration expanded access to Association Health Plans (AHPs) allowing small business to pool risk across states.
– The Trump Administration allows for Short-Term Limited Duration plans to be extended up to 12 months.
As part of the landmark Tax Cuts and Jobs Act President Trump repealed the individual mandate, which forced people to buy expensive insurance and taxed those who couldn’t afford it.
– The mandate disproportionately hurt the poor: 80% of those affected made less than $50,000.
President Trump signed a six-year extension of CHIP to fund healthcare for 9 million.
President Trump has mobilized his entire administration to address drug addiction and opioid abuse by declaring the opioid crisis a nationwide public health emergency.
– President Trump created a bipartisan opioid commission that issued 56 recommendations to help defeat the opioid crisis.
– In October 2017, President Trump directed The Department of Health and Human Services to declare the opioid crisis a public health emergency, allowing grant money to be used to combat abuse.
– President Trump signed the International Narcotics Trafficking Emergency Response by Detecting Incoming Contraband with Technology (INTERDICT Act) that would give customs agents $9 million for screening tools on the border.
– In FY2017, HHS invested nearly $900 million in opioid-specific funding.
– President Trump successfully pressured China to close dangerous loopholes that allowed Chines fentanyl manufacturers to legally ship the compound worldwide, much of which ended up in the U.S.
Under President Trump, the FDA has approved the largest number of generic drugs in history.
– Generics increase competition in the marketplace and lower the cost of prescription drugs for all Americans.
– In December 2018, year-end drug prices fell for the first time in nearly 50 years.

Social Programs
Veterans

Timeline of Accomplishments
News