Science and Technology 科学技術 Vol.17 / #Coronavirus #コロナウイルス Vol.18(masks マスク)

All the links and excerpts are in English.

Cloth masks do protect the wearer – breathing in less coronavirus means you get less sick (08/19/2020) | @ConversationEDU
Exposure dose determines severity of disease
Masks reduce viral dose
Masks increase rate of asymptomatic cases
…in places where everyone wears masks, the rate of asymptomatic infection seems to be much higher. …

Effectiveness of Cloth Masks for Protection Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (10/2020) | @CDCgov
Factors to Consider when Using Cloth Masks to Protect Wearers and to Prevent Spread of Infection during the COVID-19 Pandemic
…droplets travel >2 m, in some instances ≒8 m… …SARS-CoV-2 may be transmitted up to 4 m…
…multilayered masks with water-resistant fabric, high number of threads, and finer weave may be more protective… Masks should be able to prevent a stream of fluid flowing at a pressure of up to 160 mm Hg from seeping through the mask and potentially into the mouth. …
Cloth masks…ideally washing in hot water with soap. Other methods or products include using bleach, isopropyl alcohol, or hydrogen peroxide; autoclaving or microwaving; and application of ultraviolet radiation or dry heat…
…in a widespread pandemic, differentiating asymptomatic from healthy persons in the community is very difficult, so at least in high-transmission areas, universal face mask use may be beneficial. The general public should be educated about mask use because cloth masks may give users a false sense of protection because of their limited protection against acquiring infection…

Surgical Masks, Respirators, Face Shields: Which Masks Actually Protect Against Coronavirus? (02/28/2020) | @MedicalExpoEmag
… The particles of the SARS-CoV-2 virus are extremely small – 0.12 micrometers, 0.12 thousandths of a millimeter – and can last several tens of minutes in the air when they are expelled by someone contaminated who is coughing, talking or even breathing. …
1. Surgical Masks
In Europe…
Type I: bacterial filtering effectiveness > 95%
Type II: bacterial filtering effectiveness > 98%
Type IIR: 98% and splash-resistant
2. Respirators
FFP2: 3M, Honeywell…
3. “Barrier” Masks
4. Face Shields

Coronavirus (COVID-19) – Face masks: How they protect you and when to use them (11/11/2020) | Australian Government Department of Health
Australia DepartmentOfHealth

Some masks offer far less coronavirus protection than others. Bandanas, scarves, and shields do an especially bad job. (11/28/2020) | @businessinsider
One chart shows the best and worst face masks for coronavirus protection – and which situations they’re suited for (11/26/2020) | @businessinsider

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public: When and how to use masks (20/10/2020) | @WHO
The three-layer fabric mask (YouTube)
How to wear a fabric mask (YouTube)

What kind of face mask best protects against coronavirus? (18/08/2020) | @guardian
Why a face shield alone may not protect you from coronavirus (w Radio; 07/08/2020) | @BBC_Future
Coronavirus: What are the rules for face masks or face coverings? (30/10/2020) | @BBC

Can Face Masks Protect You from the 2019 Coronavirus? What Types, When and How to Use | @Healthline
Wear Masks To Protect Yourself From The Coronavirus, Not Only Others, CDC Stresses (11/11/2020) | @NPR
What type of mask works best for COVID-19 protection? (08/14/2020) | @MDAndersonNews
Coronavirus Face Masks & Protection FAQs | @HopkinsMedicine
COVID-19: How much protection do face masks offer?: Get answers to your questions about face masks, including how to use them properly. | @MayoClinic

Science and Technology 科学技術 Vol.16 / #Coronavirus #コロナウイルス Vol.17(sequelae 後遺症)

All the links and excerpts are in English.

JFYI   あくまでご参考です。

Late Sequelae of COVID-19 (11/13/2020) | @CDCgov
Characterization of the etiology and pathophysiology of late sequelae is underway, and may reflect organ damage from the acute infection phase, manifestations of a persistent hyperinflammatory state, ongoing viral activity associated with a host viral reservoir, or an inadequate antibody response. Factors in addition to acute disease that may further complicate the picture include physical deconditioning at baseline or after a long disease course, pre-COVID-19 comorbidities, and psychological sequelae following a long or difficult disease course as well as those relating to lifestyle changes due to the pandemic. Likely, the persistent sequelae of COVID-19 represent multiple syndromes resulting from distinct pathophysiological processes along the spectrum of disease.
Though there is limited information on late sequelae of COVID-19, reports of persistent symptoms in persons who recovered from acute COVID-19 illness have emerged. The most commonly reported symptoms include fatigue, dyspnea, cough, arthralgia, and chest pain. Other reported symptoms include cognitive impairment, depression, myalgia, headache, fever, and palpitations. More serious complications appear to be less common but have been reported. These complications include:
・Cardiovascular: myocardial inflammation, ventricular dysfunction
・Respiratory: pulmonary function abnormalities
・Renal: acute kidney injury
・Dermatologic: rash, alopecia
・Neurological: olfactory and gustatory dysfunction, sleep dysregulation, altered cognition, memory impairment
・Psychiatric: depression, anxiety, changes in mood

Long-term Health Consequences of COVID-19 (w PDF; 10/05/2020) | @JAMA_current
The most commonly reported symptoms after acute COVID-19 are fatigue and dyspnea. Other common symptoms include joint pain and chest pain. In addition to these general symptoms, specific organ dysfunction has been reported, involving primarily the heart, lungs, and brain. From a pathogenesis standpoint, these complications could be the consequence of direct tissue invasion by the virus (possibly mediated by the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor), profound inflammation and cytokine storm, related immune system damage, the hypercoagulable state described in association with severe COVID-19, or a combination of these factors.
Myocardial injury, as defined by an increased troponin level, has been described in patients with severe acute COVID-19, along with thromboembolic disease. Myocardial inflammation and myocarditis, as well as cardiac arrhythmias, have been described after SARS-CoV-2 infection. … However, an increased incidence of heart failure as a major sequela of COVID-19 is of concern, with considerable potential implications for the general population of older adults with multimorbidity, as well as for younger previously healthy patients, including athletes.
…interstitial thickening and evidence of fibrosis. …decreased diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide and diminished respiratory muscle strength…
…headache, vertigo, and chemosensory dysfunction (eg, anosmia and ageusia). …encephalitis, seizures, and other conditions such as major mood swings and “brain fog”…

What we know about sequelae and lingering COVID-19 symptoms (09/16/2020) | @SingleCare
What are coronavirus sequelae?
…brain fog, fatigue, difficulty concentrating…
Who will experience coronavirus sequelae?
…“Sequelae of the disease have been seen in people with mild cases of COVID-19.”
In other words, it’s not yet proven who is affected by sequelae.
What are the symptoms of coronavirus sequelae?
Fever; Fatigue; Muscle or body aches; Joint pain; Shortness of breath; Difficulty concentrating (or “brain fog”); Nausea, heartburn, or vomiting; Headache; Difficulty sleeping; Prolonged loss of taste or smell; Hair loss …
… “There are some individuals who may have long-lasting kidney damage, blood clots, or other problems of the blood vessels and skin as well as worsening hypertension (high blood pressure).”
…lasting effects on the heart. …cardiac involvement…myocardial inflammation…lasting damage to the lungs, including post-COVID fibrosis.
What causes coronavirus sequelae?
…the SARS-COV-2 utilizes the spiky protein on its membrane to interact and bind to the ACE 2 receptors, which can be seen in the lungs, heart, and various organs to trigger an inflammatory response…
…inflammation of the heart muscle…heart palpitations, fast heart rate (tachycardia), irregular heartbeat or chest pressure…
… Part of the cascade of events includes the release of cytokines, in the blood, which mediate subsequent immune responses against the foreign invader (the virus). In the event where such mediators cross the blood brain barrier and accumulate in the central nervous system, they can activate the primitive regulatory parts of the brain phenomenon, resulting in many of the symptoms seen in post-viral syndrome. This was also observed in select patients who contracted SARS during the 2002-2003 outbreak.”
What should you do if you experience coronavirus sequelae?
Taking over-the-counter pain relievers such as Tylenol or ibuprofen; Eating a balanced and healthy diet; Getting plenty of sleep and resting during the day as needed; Practicing relaxation techniques such as yoga, massage therapy, and meditation

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Clinical features (11/20/2020) | @UpToDate
Recovery and long-term sequelae
… The most common persistent symptoms were fatigue (53 percent), dyspnea (43 percent), joint pain (27 percent), and chest pain (22 percent)…
… Although a lack of return to baseline health was associated with older age and a greater number of underlying comorbidities, approximately one in five individuals aged 18 to 34 years who were previously healthy reported that they did not return to baseline within two to three weeks.

Will the COVID-19 pandemic result in significant neuropsychiatric sequelae? | @Immunopaedia
Epidemiological Alert: Complications and sequelae of COVID-19 (w PDF; 12/08/2020) | @pahowho
Epidemiological Alert: Complications and sequelae of COVID-19 (w PDF; 12/08/2020) | @reliefweb

2020 G20 Riyadh summit サウジアラビアG20サミット

Australia オーストラリア Vol.11(Prime Minister Morrison’s visit to Japan and bilateral summit meeting モリソン豪首相訪日・日豪首脳会談)

Science and Technology 科学技術 Vol.15 / #Coronavirus #コロナウイルス Vol.16(pharmaceutical products 医薬品 Vol.7:drugs 治療薬)

All the below links and excerpts are in English.

cf. Science and Technology 科学技術 Vol.11 / #Coronavirus #コロナウイルス Vol.13(pharmaceutical products 医薬品 Vol.4:drugs 治療薬)

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Authorizes Drug Combination for Treatment of COVID-19 (11/19/2020) | FDA
…an emergency use authorization (EUA) for the drug baricitinib, in combination with remdesivir, for the treatment of suspected or laboratory confirmed COVID-19 in hospitalized adults and pediatric patients two years of age or older requiring supplemental oxygen, invasive mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).
… Baricitinib is not authorized or approved as a stand-alone treatment for COVID-19. …
Baricitinib is a janus kinase inhibitor, which blocks the activity of one or more of a specific family of enzymes, interfering with the pathway that leads to inflammation. Baricitinib is a prescription oral tablet medication that is FDA-approved (and sold under the brand name Olumiant) for the treatment of moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis. …
Remdesivir is an FDA-approved (and sold under the brand name Veklury) intravenous antiviral drug for use in adult and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older and weighing at least 40 kilograms (about 88 pounds) for the treatment of COVID-19 requiring hospitalization. Remdesivir also remains authorized for emergency use for the treatment of suspected or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in hospitalized pediatric patients weighing 3.5 kg (about 7.7 pounds) to less than 40 kg or hospitalized pediatric patients less than 12 years of age weighing at least 3.5 kg. …
… Possible side effects of baricitinib in combination with remdesivir include serious infections, blood clots, changes in certain lab test results and allergic reactions.
The EUA was issued to Eli Lilly and Company. …

Antiviral Drugs That Are Approved or Under Evaluation for the Treatment of COVID-19 (11/03/2020) | NIH
see Table 2
Chloroquine or Hydroxychloroquine With or Without Azithromycin
Lopinavir/Ritonavir and Other HIV Protease Inhibitors

The Latest Research on COVID-19 Treatments and Medications in the Pipeline (11/18/2020) | @GoodRx
… Remdesivir is also being studied in combination with other medications. Early results reported that hospitalized COVID-19 patients who got both remdesivir and baricitinib (Olumiant) recovered about 1 day faster than those who only got remdesivir. Additionally, patients had a 30% higher chance of clinical improvement at day 15 when taking both medications together. The full data has not been shared yet.
Not all remdesivir studies have been promising. On October 15, 2020, a large, randomized study from the World Health Organization (WHO) found that remdesivir had little or no effect on death rate in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The death rate was about 11% regardless of whether patients got remdesivir or not. These results have not been peer-reviewed yet. …

WHO suspends remdesivir from list of medicines (20/11/2020) | @RTE
… “The … panel found a lack of evidence that remdesivir improved outcomes that matter to patients such as reduced mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, time to clinical improvement, and others,” the guideline said. …
At the end of October, Gilead cut its 2020 revenue forecast, citing lower-than-expected demand and difficulty in predicting sales of remdesivir, which is also known as Veklury.
The antiviral is one of only two medicines currently authorised to treat Covid-19 patients across the world…

Experimental drug given to Trump to treat covid-19 wins FDA clearance: But Regeneron’s antibody treatment is expected to be in short supply. (11/21/2020) | @washingtonpost
… The drug, made by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, is designed to prevent infected people from developing severe illness. Instead of waiting for the body to develop its own protective immune response, the drug imitates the body’s natural defenses. It is the second drug of this type — called a monoclonal antibody — to be cleared for treating covid-19. The FDA authorized Eli Lilly & Co.’s drug on Nov. 9.
Regeneron’s drug is a cocktail of two monoclonal antibodies, called casirivimab and imdevimab. The FDA said in authorizing the cocktail that it may be effective in treating mild to moderate covid-19 in adults and children 12 or older, and is indicated for those at high risk of developing severe illness. Doctors hope the drugs will keep those patients from being hospitalized.
But as with the Lilly treatment, the Regeneron drug is a biological product that is complicated and time-consuming to make…
In a study published Oct. 28 in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers said the Lilly cocktail lowered the risk of follow-up medical visits and reduced levels of virus in people with mild to moderate symptoms of covid-19. …
Through Operation Warp Speed, the Trump administration effort to speed up treatments and vaccines, the government has bought 300,000 doses each from Lilly and Regeneron at a cost of about $1,250 and $1,500 per dose, respectively, with an option to buy hundreds of thousands more. But that comes as the nation is approaching 200,000 new coronavirus cases each day.
In a sign of how quickly the supply could be used up as the pandemic surges across the country, 40 percent of the doses of Lilly’s bamlanivimab has already been allocated to states. …

Rheumatoid arthritis drug appears to help Covid patients in ICU: Trial suggests that tocilizumab improves outcomes for critically ill patients, say researchers (19/11/2020) | @guardian
… Tocilizumab, a medicine that dampens down inflammation, improved outcomes for critically ill patients…
…if confirmed by more trial data, the drug will be on track to become only the second effective therapy for the sickest Covid patients, following positive results for the steroid dexamethasone earlier this year. …
Dexamethasone, which costs about £5 per dose, was found in trials to cut the risk of death by a third for patients on ventilators. It is now part of standard care for Covid patients in hospital.
Tocilizumab costs between £500 and £1000 depending on whether patients receive one or two doses. …
cf. Science and Technology 科学技術 Vol.14 / #Coronavirus #コロナウイルス Vol.15(pharmaceutical products 医薬品 Vol.6:drugs 治療薬)

SKI Complex Identified as Target for Antiviral Drugs to Combat Coronaviruses (11/20/2020) | @Contagion_Live
…the University of Maryland School of Medicine…
…a group of proteins which regulates certain aspects of normal functions within a cell. … also seems to be involved with the replication of infectious diseases such as influenza and coronaviruses. The complex aids with a virus’ ability to replicate its genetic material, or RNA, within the cell.
The complex was identified originally in yeast, and when present, degraded its viral RNA. …

Science and Technology 科学技術 Vol.14 / #Coronavirus #コロナウイルス Vol.15(pharmaceutical products 医薬品 Vol.6:drugs 治療薬)

All the below links and excerpts are in English.


Effect of Tocilizumab vs Usual Care in Adults Hospitalized With COVID-19 and Moderate or Severe Pneumonia: A Randomized Clinical Trial (w PDF; 10/20/2020) | @JAMANetwork
Tocilizumab1 JAMA1-1_keyTocilizumab2 JAMA1-2_effectTocilizumab3 JAMA1-3_effect

Efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients: A living systematic review and meta-analysis (w PDF; 11/05/2020) | @CMIJournal
Cumulative moderate certainty evidence shows that tocilizumab reduces the risk of mechanical ventilation in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. While RCTs showed that tocilizumab did not reduce short-term mortality, low certainty evidence from cohort studies suggests an association between tocilizumab and lower mortality. We did not observe a higher risk of infections or adverse events with tocilizumab use. This review will continuously evaluate the role of tocilizumab in COVID-19 treatment.

Efficacy of Tocilizumab on Patients With COVID-19 (08/24/2020) | @MGHMedicine,@genentech @nlm_news
Brief Summary:
This is a randomized, double blind, multi-center study to evaluate the effects of tocilizumab compared to placebo on patient outcomes in participants with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and evidence of systemic inflammation.
The aim of this study is to test the effect of Tocilizumab on multi-organ dysfunction in a phase 3 randomized controlled trial among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection.
Specifically, as compared to placebo, we will test whether tocilizumab is associated with a reduction in multi-organ dysfunction among hospitalized COVID-19 adult patients with elevated inflammatory measures. Multi-organ dysfunction will be measured as the incidence of the following composite endpoint (mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, mechanical support, need for inotropes or vasopressors, liver dysfunction (increased bilirubin), and all-cause mortality). We will also assess multiple pre-specified secondary (exploratory) endpoints and safety endpoints.
We hypothesize that, as compared to placebo, tocilizumab will reduce transfer to the ICU, need for mechanical ventilation, increase rates of hospital discharge in patients diagnosed with severe COVID-19 infection and evidence of exaggerated inflammatory response.

New results from a once-promising therapy show the difficulty of treating covid-19: In one study, the drug, tocilizumab, reduced risk of death in ICU patients, but two others found negligible results with slightly different patients (10/21/2020) | @washingtonpost
Studies offer little hope for tocilizumab in treating COVID (10/20/2020) | @CIDRAP
Time to Reassess Tocilizumab’s Role in COVID-19 Pneumonia (10/20/2020) | @JAMANetwork
Association Between Early Treatment With Tocilizumab and Mortality Among Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19 (10/20/2020) | @JAMANetwork

Efficacy of Tocilizumab in Patients Hospitalized with Covid-19 (10/21/2020) | @NEJM
Tocilizumab for COVID-19? Three Studies Yield Mixed Findings (10/20/2020) | @JWatch
Tocilizumab for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. The single-arm TOCIVID-19 prospective trial (w PDF; 21/10/2020) | Journal of Translational Medicine
Appropriate use of tocilizumab in COVID-19 infection (w PDF; 10/2020) | International Journal of Infectious Diseases @ElsevierConnect
Tocilizumab4 IJID_Turkey

Roche’s Actemra helps keep coronavirus patients off ventilators despite earlier trial flop (09/18/2020) | @FiercePharma
…Roche is also pairing Actemra with Gilead Sciences’ antiviral Veklury, better known as remdesivir, in the phase 3 Remdacta trial. Eli Lilly’s JAK arthritis med Olumiant combined with Veklury helped patients recover faster in a recent trial run by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

Tocilizumab/IL-6 Inhibitors | @RealTimeCOVID19
Case report: use of lenzilumab and tocilizumab for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019. | @WHO
Decreased Mortality in Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients Treated With Tocilizumab: A Rapid Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies (w PDF; 23/09/2020) | @OUPAcademic
Tocilizumab for treatment patients with COVID-19: Recommended medication for novel disease (09/16/2020) | @NCBI
Efficacy of tocilizumab in COVID‐19: A systematic review and meta‐analysis (w PDF; 12/09/2020) | @WileyGlobal
Glucocorticoids, tocilizumab may reduce complications in COVID-19-related cytokine storm (09/03/2020) | @HealioRheum
Tocilizumab among patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit: a multicentre observational study (w PDF; 08/14/2020) | @TheLancetRheum
Tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study (w PDF; 08/01/2020) | @TheLancetRheum
Chugai Starts Phase III Clinical Trial of Actemra for COVID-19 Pneumonia in Japan (04/08/2020) | @chugai_cc
What is the role of the IL-6 inhibitor tocilizumab (Actemra) in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)? (11/10/2020) | @Medscape

Science and Technology 科学技術 Vol.13 / #Coronavirus #コロナウイルス Vol.14(pharmaceutical products 医薬品 Vol.5:drugs 治療薬)

All the below links and excerpts are in English.

Convalescent plasma(回復期血漿療法)に係るリンクと当方作成の抜粋を取り急ぎ以下のとおり貼っておきます。

The FDA has authorized convalescent plasma treatment for coronavirus patients – but some scientists worry it’s too soon (08/26/2020) | @businessinsider
During the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic, doctors discovered they could treat sick patients with the blood of those who had already recovered. …
Antibodies develop in plasma, the liquid portion of blood – they’re part of our body’s natural response to a foreign pathogen. So the idea behind the treatment is to help sick people mount an antibody response to the virus by transferring plasma intravenously from those who already have antibodies.
“What we really need are drugs that, when given early, can prevent a symptomatic person from requiring hospitalization or very dramatically diminish the time that they’re symptomatic,” …
… Plasma must be transferred quickly from a donor to a recipient – and both must have compatible blood types. The quantity is also limited, since it depends on blood donations. …
A national study of 35,000 hospitalized coronavirus patients, which is still awaiting peer review, found that patients less than 80 years old who weren’t on a respirator and received plasma containing high levels of antibodies within three days of their diagnosis had a 35% lower mortality rate than those who were treated four or more days after their diagnosis.
The process of creating hyperimmune globulin involves pooling plasma from recovered patients and heat-treating it so that any remaining pathogens get destroyed. The result is a vial of medicine with consistent antibody levels that can easily be administered to patients. The drug focuses on the most common antibody found in blood ? immunoglobulin G (IgG) – which usually confers long-term immunity.
… The Mount Sinai Hospital … working with Emergent BioSolutions, a Maryland-based biopharmaceutical company, to develop a hyperimmune globulin product. …
… “The Fight Is In Us” … The coalition hopes to secure regulatory approval from the FDA by the end of 2020. …

Why we don’t know if convalescent plasma works to treat Covid-19 (08/29/2020) | @qz
… “There’s no money to be made in plasma,” says Jeffrey Henderson, a physician and infectious disease researcher at Washington University St. Louis. Because it’s a biological product, it can’t be patented or sold for a profit. As a result, no single research group or company has funded a large, randomized controlled trial of plasma, the highest standard of clinical evidence. …
It isn’t cheap: Between 2012 and 2018, the median cost of bringing a drug to market was $985 million, about $19 million of which goes to clinical research. Typically, drug companies are happy to invest. Once their product is approved, they can sell it at a price that makes up for the loss (and then some). …
…expanded access program (EAP), a network spearheaded by researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota…
… Eventually, the EAP program got some funding from the US Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority…
…Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York…

Takeda, CSL-led alliance starts scaling up production of COVID-19 plasma therapy as phase 3 kicks off: report (10/13/2020) | @fiercepharma
… The clinical batches were produced at Takeda’s U.S. facility in Georgia and CSL’s site in Bern, Switzerland. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in the U.S. is running the trial. …
Eli Lilly and Regeneron have reported encouraging results for their antibody cocktails, each of which combines two synthetic monoclonal antibodies. While those products have less antibody variety, they only used donated plasma to help identify the antibodies with the most promise in fighting COVID. …

DOD Awards $750,000 to Plasma Technologies, LLC for Manufacturing of Convalescent Plasma Products Using a Novel Process in Support of the U.S. COVID-19 Response (08/17/2020) | DOD
… The Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (JPEO-CBRND) partnered with HHS and the Army Contracting Command – Aberdeen Proving Ground (ACC-APG), to select Plasma Technologies, LLC for this cooperative agreement. Plasma Technologies, LLC, a plasma biologics technology company, is located in Charleston, South Carolina. …

Plasma Therapy Global Market Report 2020-30: Covid 19 Growth and Change (07/30/2020) | CISION
Major players in the plasma therapy market are Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Bio Products Laboratory Ltd., Arthrex, Inc., Biotest AG, China Biologic Products Holdings, Inc., DePuy Synthes Companies, CSL Limited, Grifols, S.A., Octapharma, and Terumo BCT, Inc. …
The global plasma therapy market is expected to grow from $187.67 million in 2019 to $246.95 million in 2020 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 31.6%. The growth is mainly attributed to the COVID-19 outbreak and the urgent need to treat a growing number of cases. …
… In March 2020, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited has initiated a plasma-therapy, Anti-SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal hyperimmune globulin (H-IG), which is termed as TAK-888 for treating COVID-19. The TAK-888 utilizes the plasma collected from convalescent donors who have been cured of COVID-19 and is administered to the patient suffering from COVID-19.

CoVIg-19 Plasma Alliance Builds Strong Momentum Through Expanded Membership and Clinical Trial Collaboration (05/07/2020) | @TakedaPharma
… In addition to those announced at its inception – Biotest, BPL, CSL Behring, LFB, Octapharma and Takeda – the Alliance welcomes new industry members ADMA Biologics, BioPharma Plasma, GC Pharma, and Sanquin. …
In parallel, the Alliance has confirmed it will work with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) at the NIH to test the safety, tolerability and efficacy of the hyperimmune therapy in adult patients with COVID-19. This global study is currently anticipated to start in the summer…
“Hyperimmune globulin therapy has the potential to be one of the earliest treatment options for COVID-19, and we look forward to working with NIAID and health authorities to bring this therapy to patients as early as possible,” …
… To amplify awareness, the Alliance has gained support from large organizations outside of the plasma industry. Examples of those offering resources to the Alliance include Microsoft and Uber Health. Microsoft is providing technology support, including the Alliance website and the Plasmabot for donor recruitment. The Plasmabot streamlines the process for a potential donor to quickly gain information about their nearest collection center from across the member network. In parallel, Uber Health has agreed to donate 25,000 round-trip rides to transport potentially eligible donors to and from plasma collection centers. …

Global Plasma Leaders Collaborate to Accelerate Development of Potential COVID-19 Hyperimmune Therapy (04/06/2020) | @TakedaPharma
Biotest, BPL, LFB, and Octapharma have joined an alliance formed by CSL Behring (ASX:CSL/USOTC:CSLLY) and Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (TSE:4502/NYSE:TAK) to develop a potential plasma-derived therapy for treating COVID-19. The alliance will begin immediately with the investigational development of one, unbranded anti-SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal hyperimmune immunoglobulin medicine…

Trump admin funds plasma company based in owner’s condo (02/11/2020) | @ABCNews
Plasma Technologies LLC, Pepcid, ApiJect Systems America, Novavax
ThermoGenesis and ImmuneCyte Joint Venture Developing Several Convalescent Plasma and Antibody Therapeutic Approaches Against COVID-19, Featured on FOX40 and Other Local News Outlets (04/24/2020) | @biospace
Takeda, Other Firms Test Covid-19 Convalescent-Plasma Treatment: NIH funds study of high antibody concentrations combined with the antiviral remdesivir (10/08/2020) | @WSJ

U.S.A. アメリカ Vol.128(Illinois イリノイ州 Vol.3: healthcare corporations ヘルスケア会社)

All the below link and tweets are in English.


Illinois Vol.14 (corporations: Baxter International)


ツイッター検索で 上記製薬会社名 及び Japan や 日本の5製薬会社各社名 を入れて出て来たもの

Australia オーストラリア Vol.10(pharmaceutical corporations 製薬会社)

All the below links and tweets are in English.


Pennsylvania Vol.11 (corporations: CSL Behring) / Australia Vol.29
UK Vol.173 (pharmaceutical corporations: Seqirus) / Australia Vol.30


ツイッター検索で 上記製薬会社名 及び Japan や 日本の5製薬会社各社名 を入れて出て来たもの

U.S.A. アメリカ Vol.127(US Presidential Election 2020 米国大統領選挙)

All the below links are in English.


US Presidential Election 2020 Vol.9 cspanNewsHourTIMENewsweekHuffPostvoxdotcom
US Presidential Election 2020 Vol.8 NPRpoliticothehilldrudgereportfeedBreitbartNewsDailyCaller
US Presidential Election 2020 Vol.7 CBSNewsNBCNewsCNNABCFoxNewsnytimeswashingtonpost

9/1 US Presidential Election 2020 Vol.6 (The Hill)
9/1 US Presidential Election 2020 Vol.5 (Politico)
9/1 US Presidential Election 2020 Vol.4 (Politico)
8/31 US Presidential Election 2020 Vol.3 (American Enterprise Institute, Heritage Foundation)
8/31 US Presidential Election 2020 Vol.2 (Brookings Institution)
8/29 US Presidential Election 2020 Vol.1 (conventions)
10/29 U.S.A. Vol.126(Joe Biden For President)
10/29 U.S.A. Vol.125(Donald J. Trump for President)