UNCLOS (国連海洋法条約)

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
Article 19  Meaning of innocent passage
1. Passage is innocent so long as it is not prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State. Such passage shall take place in conformity with this Convention and with other rules of international law.
2. Passage of a foreign ship shall be considered to be prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State if in the territorial sea it engages in any of the following activities:
(a) any threat or use of force against the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence of the coastal State, or in any other manner in violation of the principles of international law embodied in the Charter of the United Nations;
(b) any exercise or practice with weapons of any kind;
(c) any act aimed at collecting information to the prejudice of the defence or security of the coastal State;
(d) any act of propaganda aimed at affecting the defence or security of the coastal State;
(e) the launching, landing or taking on board of any aircraft;
(f) the launching, landing or taking on board of any military device;
(g) the loading or unloading of any commodity, currency or person contrary to the customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations of the coastal State;
(h) any act of wilful and serious pollution contrary to this Convention;
(i) any fishing activities;
(j) the carrying out of research or survey activities;
(k) any act aimed at interfering with any systems of communication or any other facilities or installations of the coastal State;
(l) any other activity not having a direct bearing on passage.
Article 24  Duties of the coastal State
1. The coastal State shall not hamper the innocent passage of foreign ships through the territorial sea except in accordance with this Convention. In particular, in the application of this Convention or of any laws or regulations adopted in conformity with this Convention, the coastal State shall not:
(a) impose requirements on foreign ships which have the practical effect of denying or impairing the right of innocent passage; or
(b) discriminate in form or in fact against the ships of any State or against ships carrying cargoes to, from or on behalf of any State.
2. The coastal State shall give appropriate publicity to any danger to navigation, of which it has knowledge, within its territorial sea.
Article 25  Rights of protection of the coastal State
1. The coastal State may take the necessary steps in its territorial sea to prevent passage which is not innocent.
2. In the case of ships proceeding to internal waters or a call at a port facility outside internal waters, the coastal State also has the right to take the necessary steps to prevent any breach of the conditions to which admission of those ships to internal waters or such a call is subject.
3. The coastal State may, without discrimination in form or in fact among foreign ships, suspend temporarily in specified areas of its territorial sea the innocent passage of foreign ships if such suspension is essential for the protection of its security, including weapons exercises. Such suspension shall take effect only after having been duly published.
Article 33  Contiguous zone
1. In a zone contiguous to its territorial sea, described as the contiguous zone, the coastal State may exercise the control necessary to:
(a) prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea;
(b) punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea.
2. The contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

Article 56  Rights, jurisdiction and duties of the coastal State in the exclusive economic zone
1. In the exclusive economic zone, the coastal State has:
(a) sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed and of the seabed and its subsoil, and with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the production of energy from the water, currents and winds;
(b) jurisdiction as provided for in the relevant provisions of this Convention with regard to:
(i) the establishment and use of artificial islands, installations and structures;
(ii) marine scientific research;
(iii) the protection and preservation of the marine environment;
(c) other rights and duties provided for in this Convention.
2. In exercising its rights and performing its duties under this Convention in the exclusive economic zone, the coastal State shall have due regard to the rights and duties of other States and shall act in a manner compatible with the provisions of this Convention.
3. The rights set out in this article with respect to the seabed and subsoil shall be exercised in accordance with Part VI.
Article 58  Rights and duties of other States in the exclusive economic zone
1. In the exclusive economic zone, all States, whether coastal or land-locked, enjoy, subject to the relevant provisions of this Convention, the freedoms referred to in article 87 of navigation and overflight and of the laying of submarine cables and pipelines, and other internationally lawful uses of the sea related to these freedoms, such as those associated with the operation of ships, aircraft and submarine cables and pipelines, and compatible with the other provisions of this Convention.
2. Articles 88 to 115 and other pertinent rules of international law apply to the exclusive economic zone in so far as they are not incompatible with this Part.
3. In exercising their rights and performing their duties under this Convention in the exclusive economic zone, States shall have due regard to the rights and duties of the coastal State and shall comply with the laws and regulations adopted by the coastal State in accordance with the provisions of this Convention and other rules of international law in so far as they are not incompatible with this Part.
Article 59  Basis for the resolution of conflicts regarding the attribution of rights and jurisdiction in the exclusive economic zone
In cases where this Convention does not attribute rights or jurisdiction to the coastal State or to other States within the exclusive economic zone, and a conflict arises between the interests of the coastal State and any other State or States, the conflict should be resolved on the basis of equity and in the light of all the relevant circumstances, taking into account the respective importance of the interests involved to the parties as well as to the international community as a whole.
Article 73  Enforcement of laws and regulations of the coastal State
1. The coastal State may, in the exercise of its sovereign rights to explore, exploit, conserve and manage the living resources in the exclusive economic zone, take such measures, including boarding, inspection, arrest and judicial proceedings, as may be necessary to ensure compliance with the laws and regulations adopted by it in conformity with this Convention.
2. Arrested vessels and their crews shall be promptly released upon the posting of reasonable bond or other security.
3. Coastal State penalties for violations of fisheries laws and regulations in the exclusive economic zone may not include imprisonment, in the absence of agreements to the contrary by the States concerned, or any other form of corporal punishment.
4. In cases of arrest or detention of foreign vessels the coastal State shall promptly notify the flag State, through appropriate channels, of the action taken and of any penalties subsequently imposed.


Article 98  Duty to render assistance
1. Every State shall require the master of a ship flying its flag, in so far as he can do so without serious danger to the ship, the crew or the passengers:
(a) to render assistance to any person found at sea in danger of being lost;
(b) to proceed with all possible speed to the rescue of persons in distress, if informed of their need of assistance, in so far as such action may reasonably be expected of him;
(c) after a collision, to render assistance to the other ship, its crew and its passengers and, where possible, to inform the other ship of the name of his own ship, its port of registry and the nearest port at which it will call.
2. Every coastal State shall promote the establishment, operation and maintenance of an adequate and effective search and rescue service regarding safety on and over the sea and, where circumstances so require, by way of mutual regional arrangements cooperate with neighbouring States for this purpose.

海洋法に関する国際連合条約 (国連海洋法条約)
第2部 領海及び接続水域
第3節 領海における無害通航
A すべての船舶に適用される規則
第19条 無害通航の意味
1 通航は、沿岸国の平和、秩序又は安全を害しない限り、無害とされる。無害通航は、この条約及び国際法の他の規則に従って行わなければならない。
2 外国船舶の通航は、当該外国船舶が領海において次の活動のいずれかに従事する場合には、沿岸国の平和、秩序又は安全を害するものとされる。
第24条 沿岸国の義務
1 沿岸国は、この条約に定めるところによる場合を除くほか、領海における外国船舶の無害通航を妨害してはならない。沿岸国は、特に、この条約又はこの条約に従って制定される法令の適用に当たり、次のことを行ってはならない。
2 沿岸国は、自国の領海内における航行上の危険で自国が知っているものを適当に公表する。
第25条 沿岸国の保護権
1 沿岸国は、無害でない通航を防止するため、自国の領海内において必要な措置をとることができる。
2 沿岸国は、また、船舶が内水に向かって航行している場合又は内水の外にある港湾施設に立ち寄る場合には、その船舶が内水に入るため又は内水の外にある港湾施設に立ち寄るために従うべき条件に違反することを防止するため、必要な措置をとる権利を有する。
3 沿岸国は、自国の安全の保護(兵器を用いる訓練を含む。)のため不可欠である場合には、その領海内の特定の水域において、外国船舶の間に法律上又は事実上の差別を設けることなく、外国船舶の無害通航を一時的に停止することができる。このような停止は、適当な方法で公表された後においてのみ、効力を有する。
第4節 接続水域
第33条 接続水域
1 治岸国は、自国の領海に接続する水域て接続水域といわれるものにおいて、次のことに必要な規制を行うことができる。
2 接続水城は、領海の幅を測定するための基線から24海里を超えて拡張することができない。

第5部 排他的経済水域
第56条 排他的経済水域における沿岸国の権利、管轄権及び義務
1 沿岸国は、排他的経済水域において、次のものを有する。
2 沿岸国は、排他的経済水域においてこの条約により自国の権利を行使し及び自国の義務を履行するに当たり、他の国の権利及び義務に妥当な考慮を払うものとし、また、この条約と両立するように行動する。
3 この条に定める海底及びその下についての権利は、第6部の規定により行使する。
第58条 排他的経済水域における他の国の権利及び義務
1 すべての国は、沿岸国であるか内陸国であるかを問わず、排他的経済水域において、この条約の関連する規定に定めるところにより、第87条に定める航行及び上空飛行の自由並びに海底電線及び海底パイプラインの敷設の自由並びにこれらの自由に関連し及びこの条約のその他の規定と両立するその他の国際的に適法な海洋の利用(船舶及び航空機の運航並びに海底電線及び海底パイプラインの運用に係る海洋の利用等)の自由を享有する。
2 第88条から第115条までの規定及び国際法の他の関連する規則は、この部の規定に反しない限り、排他的経済水域について適用する。
3 いずれの国も、排他的経済水域においてこの条約により自国の権利を行使し及び自国の義務を履行するに当たり、沿岸国の権利及び義務に妥当な考慮を払うものとし、また、この部の規定に反しない限り、この条約及び国際法の他の規則に従って沿岸国が制定する法令を遵守する。
第59条 排他的経済水域における権利及び管轄権の帰属に関する紛争の解決のための基礎
第73条 沿岸国の法令の執行
1 沿岸国は、排他的経済水域において生物資源を探査し、開発し、保有し及び管理するための主権的権利を行使するに当たり、この条約に従って制定する法令の遵守を確保するために必要な措置(乗船、検査、拿捕及び司法上の手続を含む。)をとることができる。
2 拿捕された船舶及びその乗組員は、合理的な保証金の支払又は合理的な他の保証の提供の後に速やかに釈放される。
3 排他的経済水域における漁業に関する法令に対する違反について沿岸国が科する罰には、関係国の別段の合意がない限り拘禁を含めてはならず、また、その他のいかなる形態の身体刑も含めてはならない。
4 沿岸国は、外国船舶を拿捕し又は抑留した場合には、とられた措置及びその後科した罰について、適当な経路を通じて旗国に速やかに通報する。

第6部 大陸棚

第7部 公 海
第1節 総 則
第98条 援助を与える義務
1 いずれの国も、自国を旗国とする船舶の船長に対し、船舶、乗組員又は旅客に重大な危険を及ぼさない限度において次の措置をとることを要求する。
2 いずれの沿岸国も、海上における安全に関する適切かつ実効的な捜索及び救助の機関の設置、運営及び維持を促進し、また、状況により必要とされるときは、このため、相互間の地域的な取極により隣接国と協力する。

U.S.-Japan Summit Meetings 日米首脳会談 Vol.3(Obama’s visit to Hiroshima Vol.3)

Here is just a part of Tweets related to the visit, war, peace, politics, science, et al (through noon on August 9 (JST)). [All the below are in English.]

Praying for peace in Nagasaki | @nhk_world_news

Nagasaki, 1945: “The world did not need your experiment” | @jricole

Hiroshima wrongly overshadows Nagasaki says @StimsonCenter’s Michael Krepon | @ReThinkDefense

Remembering Hiroshima and Nagasaki with George Shultz and Henry Kissinger, via @NTI_WMD | @ReThinkDefense

Inspired by Nagasaki’s steadfast commitment to the pursuit of peace. | @CarolineKennedy

The great science behind the terrifying history of the atomic bomb – great piece by @nevertoocurious | @kemal_atlay

“Fat Man” was dropped on Nagasaki on Aug 9, 1945, causing Japan to surrender | @newsflicks

This alone highlights need for diplomacy and non-proliferation: What Nagasaki looked like before and after the bomb | @JohnDAxelrod

#HiroshimaDay may have been yesterday, but the effects of a nuclear bomb are long-lasting | @ReThinkDefense

71 years ago today, this was the headline for @nytimes. | @ReThinkDefense

Must-watch: Hiroshima survivor Setsuko Thurlow talks about her life at @ArmsControlNow | @ReThinkDefense

Japan calls for a nuclear weapons free world & for all world leaders to visit | @ReThinkDefense

Obama’s Hiroshima trip stirs debate on Truman’s fateful choice | @ThePartykaGroup

Apology Diplomacy at Hiroshima: my 2010 article in @TheAtlantic | @profLind

On anniversary of Hiroshima bombing, re-up of my piece about memory and reconciliation in US-Japan relations | @profLind

6 August 1945 the Hiroshima explosion recorded at 8.15 a.m. on the remains of a wrist watch found in the ruins | @UN_Photo

Read Harry Truman’s statement on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 | @Miller_Center

Hiroshima: President Obama and Harry Truman. | @IWF

Obama’s visit to Hiroshima, contextualized via the Truman Library: President Barack Obama is the first sitting U.S.… | @POLSMiami

Truman’s note to Stalin about dropping atomic bomb on Hiroshima #HiroshimaVisit | @Danovate

The Christian answer to all this meaningless suffering is more suffering, willingness to suffer for one’s enemy… | @CosmosTheInLost

Why 71 years after Hiroshima every baby born in 2016 contains nuclear radiation | @3tags_org

The decision to destroy Hiroshima and Nagasaki was a political not a military decision. | @NatCounterPunch

7 stories from Hiroshima and Nagasaki on the 71st anniversary of the nuclear strike | @TIME

On this day in 1945, the US dropped the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima. See the aftermath | @LIFE

Today in history: The United States drops the “Little Boy” atomic bomb on Hiroshima, killing 70,000 instantly. | @ForeignAffairs

N Korea’s ballistic missile launch lands in Japan’s EEZ, escalating regional tensions | @nukes_of_hazard

@KingstonAReif: Reducing our commitment to#Japanwould ultimately increase threat by nuclear weapons to the US” | @ArmsControlNow

Hiroshima and Nagasaki push for @POTUS to support nuclear arms control efforts in powerful new letter. | @nukes_of_hazard

Still time to advance @POTUS vision of a safer world. “A Nuclear Legacy Within Reach” | @DarylGKimball

U.S.-Japan Summit Meetings 日米首脳会談 Vol.2(Obama’s visit to Hiroshima Vol.2)

Here is just a part of Twitter articles related to the visit (through early August 6 (JST)). [All the below are in English.]

On Aug. 6, 1945, an A-bomb devastated Hiroshima, where Obama paid his respects this year. | @The_Japan_News

Today on The Bridge @MarcM_Tweets looks at Pres Obama’s Hiroshima comments and wonders if the Asia Pivot has begun. | @Strategy_Bridge

As Obama touches down in Hiroshima, @FitzpatrickIISS reflects on the impact of his visit | @IISS_org

Japan remembers Hiroshima, urges world to follow Obama and visit | @ReutersWorld

Obama’s Hiroshima rhetoric obscures a growing role for nuclear weapons, write Stephan Frühling and @oneil_ak | @LowyInstitute

“Obama’s Hiroshima rhetoric obscures growing role for nuclear weapons” – Stephan Fruehling #ANU_SDSC | @ANUBellSchool

Obama’s Prague vision, Hiroshima visit undermined by Republicans & Putin – @MilesPomper @MarkThompson_DC in @TIME | @CNS_Updates

Only nuclear weapons can turn a small confrontation into a catastrophe like the one Obama commemorated in Hiroshima | @ProSyn

Obama in Hiroshima: A Mandate for Looking Back #twitterstorians | @The_OAH

Nukes Will Be Obama’s Legacy @johnfeffer | @myfairobserver

Obama called for a moral revolution at Hiroshima. Will he lead it? | @americamag

At Hiroshima, President Obama spoke eloquently against nuclear weapons. But do his policies send the same message? | @BosPublicRadio

Dan Sneider in @nippon_en: “The best judgment of the impact of Obama’s Hiroshima visit may be what follows…” | @StanfordSAPARC

In Hiroshima President Obama Can Help Save History leadership | @Real_Leaders

Obama, Truman and Hiroshima #culture | @COZMOPOLIS

Hibakusha group says Obama Hiroshima speech ‘avoided responsibility’ via the Japan Times | @TheAtomicAge

Overwhelming majority in Japan & esp Hiroshima think of President Obama’s visit as an implicit apology | @LSEUSAblog

Japan atomic bomb survivors criticise Obama’s Hiroshima speech | @France24_en

Obama’s Ironic Visit to Hiroshima | @opednews

How President Obama’s recent visit to Hiroshima makes the world more dangerous | @theTrumpet_com

At Hiroshima, Obama Asks Fundamental Questions About Science And War | @mrjimmc

Take a look at the context behind President Obama’s trip to Hiroshima | @amsecproject

Pres. Obama calls for a “moral revolution” w/ regard to nuclear weapons. Read his full Hiroshima speech here | @nextgenshapers

Photo of Obama, origami cranes on display at A-bomb museum in Hiroshima | @DaiwaFoundation

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum places Pres Obama’s origami cranes on display @japantimes | @Stimson_EAsia

ICYMI: President Obama’s visit to Hiroshima last month. Here’s the full length of his speech (video)…. | @NYPeaceFilmFest

Preliminary Reflections on Political Forgiveness — a compelling new policy brief from @wendyrsherman @BelferCenter | @HarvardAsh

姉妹都市 Vol.3(Tripartite Economic Alliance ロサンゼルスLA=オークランドAK=広州GZ 三市経済連携 Vol.1)


ロサンゼルス市(LA、人口380万人、アメリカ。参考:@MayorOfLA 市長)・オークランド市(AK、市人口40万人強・都市圏人口150万人、ニュージーランド。参考:@Auckland_NZ 市役所)・広州市(GZ、人口1300万人、中国。参考:@Guangzhou_City 市役所)の相互に姉妹都市である三市による Tripartite Economic Summit 2016 三市経済サミット が先月中旬にオークランドで開催されました。21世紀の都市間交流のあり方を打ち立てるべく2014年11月に世界初の三市経済連携協定(Tripartite Economic Alliance agreement)が結ばれ、初回”サミット”が昨年6月にロサンゼルスで開催されたとのことです。

なお、上記三市の日本の姉妹都市は、ロサンゼルス市とは名古屋市(参考:名古屋市英語ホームページ)、オークランド市とは大阪市(参考:大阪市英語ホームページ)・福岡市(参考:福岡市英語ホームページ)・富岡町(友好都市。参考:福島県富岡町ホームページ。)・宇都宮市(参考:宇都宮市ホームページ)・品川区(参考:品川区英語ホームページ)、広州市とは福岡市、のようです。また、広州市の姉妹都市には、当都市経済連携には入っておらず、ニュージーランドとは隣国かつ同盟国であるオーストラリアのシドニー市(参考:@cityofsydney 市役所)もあり、先月で両市姉妹都市30年になり喜ばしいとの報道が何度か目に入ってきました。シドニー市の姉妹都市には日本の名古屋市もあります。

※ 各人が手抜き無しに努力を怠らないチームの人数は、例えばWhy Less Is More in Teams | Mark de Rond では、4人とされています。他方、適度な頑張りが必要となる姉妹都市経済連携のような組織間の持続的試みにおいては、検証等必要ですが、各者が一定程度以上望んでいれば3者というのが一番長持ちしそうだと第一感では思いました。

U.S.-Japan Summit Meetings 日米首脳会談 Vol.1(Obama’s visit to Hiroshima Vol.1)

Here is just a part of articles concerning the visit (through May 27). [All the below are in English.]

Obama’s Hiroshima visit strengthens his call for nuclear disarmament | Sharon Squassoni

Text of President Obama’s speech in Hiroshima, Japan

Obama Makes Historic Visit To Hiroshima Memorial Peace Park [with Full Remarks (17:21)] | ELISE HU & CAMILA DOMONOSKE

Obama should not apologise for Hiroshima. He should heed its lessons | Simon Jenkins

Hiroshima | JOHN HERSEY

[Editorial] The Guardian view on Obama in Hiroshima: facing a nuclear past, not fixing a post-nuclear future

More and more Americans question the Hiroshima bombing. But would they do it again? Maybe. | Adam Taylor

Obama at Hiroshima: What to watch for | Kevin Liptak

Bombing Hiroshima changed the world, but it didn’t end WWII | Oliver Stone and Peter Kuznick


Hiroshima: Was the atomic bomb necessary? [Video] Mehdi Hasan asks if the US needed to drop the atomic bombs.

Nuclear-Free Aspirations of Obama, Abe Conflict with Reality

Why Obama Is Wrong to Focus on Hiroshima | Bruce Klingner

Obama should go to Hiroshima — but not for the reason he gave | Michael Auslin

President Obama Is Visiting Hiroshima. Why Not Pearl Harbor?: On the 75th anniversary of Pearl Harbor, what lessons does the U.S. need to relearn? | Victor Davis Hanson

5 Things That Should Happen When Obama Visits Hiroshima:The president’s decision was the right one and can make Japan-U.S. ties even stronger. | Scott W. Harold

FPI Bulletin: The Enduring Value of the U.S.-Japanese Alliance | David Adesnik


The Last Days of Imperial Japan | CFR

For Japan, a G7 to Remember | Sheila A. Smith