Canada カナダ Vol.5 (建国150周年 #Canada150)

(All the below links are in English.)

建国150周年となった今年のカナダデー(Canada Day; 建国記念日; 7月1日)関連の情報を以下貼っておきます。

Canada Vol.36 (#Canada150 …)

Canada Vol.35 (New Brunswick, Canada Day #Canada150)


ツイッター Vol.19

All the below links are in English.

弊社ツイッターアカウントの一つ @WSjp_insight のRTによる 掲載記事12件を貼っておきます。

Cape Town bursting at the seams (12/19/2014) | @nashhannibal,@rox_henderson @TimesLIVE

Rightsizing the Region: France Redraws its Map (12/9/2014) | @BrookingsInst

Signs of an economic improvement (1/19/2015) | @Bundesbank

Analysis: UK wind generated more electricity than coal in 2016 (1/5/2017)| @DrSimEvans @CarbonBrief

Quebec tables balanced budget; says economic climate remains ‘favourable’ (3/17/2016) | @NickVanPraet @globeandmail

B.C. could lead Canadian economic growth in low-loonie era, economists say (1/15/2016) | @CBC

Economic Outlook 2016: B.C. to fly above resource mire (1/5/2016) | @jenstden @bizinvancouver

Prince Edward Island | @UWaterloo

Economic Development and Tourism | @CornwallHeath @InfoPEI

Saskatchewan to Rebound from Recession in 2016 (12/7/2015) | @Conferenceboard

Strong Saskatchewan economy despite challenges (1/16/2016) | @MJTimesHerald @PressReader

How will low oil prices affect Saskatchewan’s economy? (1/18/2016) | @LeishaCBC,@JSGSPP @CBC

Canada カナダ Vol.4

(All the below links are in English.)

Household Indebtedness and Financial Vulnerability (PDF, 19 January 2016) | @PBO_DPB 国民家計の負債と金銭的脆弱性 | カナダ連邦議会予算官(Parliamentary Budget Officer)本文抜粋・一部抄訳です。

Executive Summary 〔抜粋excerpts〕

The indebtedness of Canadian households continues to trend higher. In the third quarter of 2015, total household debt (i.e., credit market debt plus trade payables) reached 171 per cent of disposable income. In other words, for every $100 of disposable income, households had debt obligations of $171. This is the highest level recorded since 1990.
• Among G7 countries, Canada has experienced the largest increase in household debt relative to income since 2000. Households in Canada have become more indebted than any other G7 country over recent history.
• Measured relative to household assets, household debt has moderated in recent years. In the third quarter of 2015, household debt accounted for 17.0 per cent of household assets. But this was still above the average of 15.4 per cent prior to the global financial crisis.
• Analysis conducted at the Bank of Canada suggests that low interest rates, higher house prices and financial innovation have contributed to the increase in household indebtedness.
…  see Summary Figure 1 (Household debt service ratios)
Based on PBO’s November 2015 Economic and Fiscal Outlook, we project that household debt will continue to rise, reaching 174 per cent of disposable income in late 2016, before returning close to current levels by the end of 2020.
Household debt-servicing capacity will become stretched further as interest rates rise to “normal” levels over the next five years. By the end of 2020, the total household DSR, that is principal plus interest, is projected to increase from 14.1 per cent of disposable income in the third quarter of 2015 to 15.9 per cent.
(家計負債は増え続け、2016年の終盤には可処分所得の174%に達し、2020年末までに今のレベルに近付くであろうというのが、2015年経済金融概観に基づく議会予算官の予測である。次の5年に亘って金利が”通常”のものになるにつれ、金利支払い(service)も引っ張られて伸びるだろう。2020年末には家計のDSR(debt service ratio: see 本文4.)は2015年第3四半期の対可処分所得比14.1%から15.9%に増える見通しである。)

Based on PBO’s projection, the financial vulnerability of the average household would rise to levels beyond historical experience.
• The projected increase in the total DSR to 15.9 per cent would be 3.1 percentage points above the long-term historical average of 12.8 per cent (from 1990Q1 to 2015Q3). It would also be almost one full percentage point above its highest level over the past 25 years, 14.9 per cent, which was reached in 2007Q4.

1. Introduction
Section 2 examines trends in household indebtedness since the early 1990s. Section 3 incorporates household assets into the analysis and examines the evolution of household debt relative to assets. Section 4 presents and discusses trends in household debt-servicing capacity. The concluding Section 5 presents a medium-term outlook for household debt and debt-servicing capacity based on PBO’s November 2015 Economic and Fiscal Outlook.

2. Household Debt
Statistics Canada identifies four major sources of household debt:
1. mortgages,
2. consumer credit,
3. non-mortgage loans and
4. trade accounts payable.
Mortgages are loans for the purchase of homes. Consumer credit includes loans for the purchase of consumer goods and other personal services, for example, a car loan or credit card debt. Non-mortgage loans are loans not intended for the purchase of consumer goods or personal services, for example, a loan to purchase securities. Finally, trade payables are short-term credit received in the ordinary course of business by suppliers of business goods and services.
Since 1991, household debt has increased each quarter, on average, by almost 7 per cent on a year-over-year basis, with the sharpest acceleration occurring over 2002 to 2008 (Figure 2-1: The evolution of household debt). In the third quarter of 2015, household debt amounted to $1.9 trillion.
Over the past 25 years, the proportional breakdown of debt has remained broadly stable. On average, mortgages have represented about 63 per cent of households’ total financial obligations; consumer credit, 29 per cent; and non-mortgage loans and trade accounts payable, 8 per cent.

Over the past 25 years, total household debt obligations relative to disposable income have almost doubled (Figure 2-2: Household debt relative to disposable income).

As interest rates have fallen, the demand for mortgage credit has increased, stimulating both house prices and household debt. The effective household borrowing rate has declined from 6.7 per cent in January 1999 to 3.1 per cent in December 2015 (Figure 2-3: Household borrowing rate).
Despite the increase in house prices during this period, historically-low interest rates and growth in household incomes have helped to maintain the overall affordability of mortgages close to the average level observed prior to global financial crisis (Figure 2-4: Bank of Canada index of housing affordability). Crawford and Faruqui (2012) suggested that changes to the affordability of mortgages have been a significant driver of the rise in mortgage credit since the 1990s.
Crawford and Faruqui (2012) noted that rising house prices increased total household debt levels in two ways:
1. By increasing the mortgages required for home buyers, and
2. By providing some households with more collateral for personal lines of credit (PLCs), encouraging higher consumer credit.


The upward trend in household indebtedness is reflected in the debt-to-income ratio in other G7 countries, based on statistics compiled by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Figure 2-5: Household debt-to-income ratios in G7 countries).

3. Household assets

Total assets are divided almost evenly between financial and non-financial assets. They increased from $2.2 trillion in 1990 to $11.3 trillion (measured at market value) by the end of the third quarter of 2015 (Figure 3-1: Financial and non-financial assets of households).


Household financial assets consist of the following four broad categories:
1. life insurance and pensions,
2. equity and investment fund shares,
3. currency and deposits, and
4. other financial assets

Non-financial assets of households consist of the following four broad categories:
1. residential structures
2. land
3. consumer durables, and
4. other non-financial assets.

As a share of non-financial assets, the proportion of land and residential structures has increased since 1990 (Figure 3-2: Composition of household assets).

An increase in the debt-to-asset ratio indicates that households are becoming more leveraged. Figure 3-3 (Household debt relative to household assets) shows the evolution of the debt-to-asset ratio over time. Since 1990, this measure has fluctuated between 14 per cent and 19 per cent.

4. Debt-Servicing Capacity
Households that are required to devote a substantial portion of their disposable income to service their debts are vulnerable to negative income and interest rate shocks, and are more likely to be delinquent in their debt payments. Financial vulnerability is typically assessed by examining a household’s debt service ratio (DSR). Debt service ratio = Obligated debt payments / Disposable income

While the interest-only DSR has trended downward since 1990, the total DSR remained relatively stable over 1990 to 2004 but then increased sharply through 2007 (Figure 4-1: Household debt service ratios).

5. Medium-Term Outlook
In PBO’s November 2015 outlook, the target for the overnight rate was projected to increase from its current level of 0.5 per cent to 3.5 per cent by the end of 2020; similarly the 10-year benchmark bond rate was projected to increase from 1.5 percent to 4.5 per cent over the same period (Figure 5-1: Interest rates).

Although Statistics Canada does not provide series for the remaining amortization periods, we can use the above relationship to calculate an implicit estimate that is consistent with the observed total DSR, the historical
effective interest rate and the debt-to-income ratio data (Figure 5-2: Implicit remaining amortization periods).

Based on PBO’s November 2015 outlook, household debt is projected to increase from 171 per cent of disposable income in the third quarter of 2015 to a high of 174 per cent in the third quarter of 2016 (Figure 5-3: Household debt relative to disposable income). The projected increase reflects continued gains in real house prices.
However, as the Bank of Canada raises its target for the overnight rate, beginning in the fourth quarter of 2016, short- and long-term interest rates rise steadily. At the same time, real house price gains are projected to moderate. As a consequence, household debt relative to income is projected to decline gradually, falling to just below its current level; in 2020, it would average 169 per cent.

PBO projects that household debt-servicing capacity will be stretched further over the medium term as interest rates return to more normal levels. The total household DSR is projected to increase from 14.1 per cent to 15.9 per cent (Figure 5-4: Household debt service ratios = same as Summary Figure 1).
Unlike the benchmarks used by financial institutions for assessing an individual household’s financial vulnerability, a threshold for the economy-wide debt service ratio does not exist. However, to gauge the vulnerability at the aggregate level, it can be informative to compare the projected results for the total DSR to historical experience.


A dash of data: Spotlight on Canadian households | #OECDInsights (カナダ国民の家計 | OECD)

National balance sheet and financial flow accounts, first quarter 2016(w PDF, June 14, 2016) | @StatCan_eng (2016年第1四半期の国家貸借対照表及び国家ファイナンシャルフロー計算書 | カナダ連邦統計局)

Canada カナダ Vol.3

(Most of the links in 1. are in Japanese, and those in 2. are in English.)

日本・カナダ間の貿易・投資関連概観 及び カナダ連邦及び各州の主要経済分野 です。

1. 日加経済 平成28年2月4日 の カナダ経済と日加経済関係 (PDF) p.3,4,9,10,11 に日加間貿易・投資関連データが掲載されています。
 また、日加首脳会談 平成28年5月24日 の 3(3) にあるとおり、インフラ、エネルギー、科学技術、ビジネス環境・投資、観光・学生交流の5分野に焦点を当て両国間の協力を進めることとされています。

カナダ(Canada) 基礎データ 平成28年2月23日
質の高いインフラ投資の推進のためのG7伊勢志摩原則 (PDF)
カナダの基礎情報 | 海外建設・不動産市場データベース
原子力安全セキュリティ・グループ(NSSG)報告書 (PDF)
自動走行車・燃料電池自動車プレゼンテーション 平成28年5月26日
競争力の優位性 | The Canadian Trade Commissioner Service
SR&ED優遇税制 | The Canadian Trade Commissioner Service
“Policy Package for Promoting Foreign Direct Investment into Japan to Make Japan a Global Hub” (May 20, 2016)(PDF:115KB)
“Five Promises for Attracting Foreign Businesses to Japan” (March 17, 2015) (PDF:90KB)
日・カナダ科学技術協力 平成25年2月1日
投資/科学技術 | @CanEmbJapan

2. カナダ各州の主要経済分野に係る情報は、例えば、以下のものがあります。
(1)オンタリオ州 Ontario
 Industries | @InvestOntario(頁下部)では、Aerospace、Automotive、Chemical and biochemical、Financial services、Food and beverage manufacturing、Industrial Automation and Robotics、Information technology、Life sciences、Mining、Tourism、Water technology の11分野が挙げられ、それぞれにおいて多くの情報が掲載されています。

(2)ブリティッシュコロンビア州 British Columbia
 産業セクター | @BCTradeInvest では、農業食品、林業、鉱業、天然ガス、テクノロジー、観光、運輸 の7分野が挙げられ、それぞれにおいて主な利点、概略、統計、支援、インセンティブ、サクセスストーリー、インフラなどの項目が立てられ、多くの情報が掲載されています。

(3)ケベック州 Quebec

(4)アルバータ州 Alberta (@YourAlberta) では、 「アルバータ州の産業に関する詳しい情報は、以下をご覧ください。」とされて、航空宇宙・防衛機器、農業・畜産食品、建築製品・技術、工学・建造技術、環境製品・サービス、金融サービス、工業製造、情報通信技術、生命科学、物流と市場へのアクセス、原油・ガス、精製、石油化学、生化学製品、観光の13分野が挙げられ、それぞれにおいて概要が説明されています。

(5)マニトバ州 Manitoba
 Growth, Enterprise and Trade | @MBGov では、Key Industry Sectors として Aerospace、Agribusiness: Food Processing、Agribusiness Manufacturing & Technology、Building Products、Education、Electricity、Environmental Industries、Financial Services、Heavy Vehicle Manufacturing、Information & Communications Technologies & Media、Mining, Minerals & Petroleum、Retail、Tourism、Transportation & Logistics の14分野が挙げられ、それぞれにおいて概要等が掲載されています。

(6)サスカチュワン州 Saskatchewan
 OUR KEY ECONOMIC SECTORS | @SKGov では、”The sectors listed below have been identified as having the most potential for economic growth.” とされて、Agriculture & Agri-Value、Energy、Forestry、Life Sciences & Biomass、Manufacturing、Minerals の6分野が挙げられ、それぞれにおいて概要説明やまとめPDF等が掲載されています。

(7)ニューファンドランド・ラブラドール州 Newfoundland and Labrador
 Supporting Business Sectors | Department of Business, Tourism, Culture and Rural Development @GovNL では、”Strategic sector development focuses on the development and implementation of industry strategies to take advantage of new business opportunities. The department works closely with industry, economic development groups, the federal and provincial governments to develop and implement strategies that support the growth and diversification of strategic sectors.” とされて、Aerospace and Defence、Agrifoods、Craft and Gift、Environmental Industries、Information and Communications Technology、Life Sciences/Biotechnology、Manufacturing、Ocean Technology and Arctic Opportunities の8分野が挙げられ、それぞれにおいて概要が掲載されています。

(8)プリンスエドワードアイランド州  Prince Edward Island
 STRATEGIC SECTORS | @Innovation_PEI (@InfoPEI) では、”Prince Edward Island is developing a solid reputation as the location of choice for many leading international companies. Regardless of sector, we have a variety of financial supports and services to support the Island’s economic growth. Since the early 1990’s, the province’s economy has undergone considerable growth particularly in high knowledge sectors such as: Aerospace and defence, Bioscience, and Information communications technology. As these sectors have grown, our need for primary industries has faded. There is little to suggest these trends will not continue. Along with these trends and our province’s economic strategy, we are focusing on five main growth sectors: ” とされて、Information and Communications Technology、BIO Science、Aerospace and Defence、Renewable Energy、Financial & Business Services、Marine の6分野が挙げられ、それぞれにおいて概要説明やビデオ等が掲載されています。その後、社会的・経済的に成長している分野として、Advanced Manufacturing and Processing including value-added food development and production、Financial Services、Small Business が挙げられています。

Invest PEI

(9)ノバスコシア州 Nova Scotia
 Our Growth Sectors | @NSBI では、Agriculture and Agri-Food、Clean Technology、Defence, Security & Aerospace、Digital Media、Financial Services、Information Communications Technology、Life Sciences、Manufacturing、Ocean Technology の9分野が挙げられ、それぞれにおいて企業・組織名を挙げた概要説明等が掲載されています。@NSBI は、
@ns_dob  の一番下に紹介されています。
 また、Industry Sectors | @hfxnovascotia では、Oceans、Life Sciences、Aerospace & Defence、Finance & Insurance、Education の5分野が挙げられ、それぞれにおいて概要説明やビデオ等が掲載されています。

(10)ニューブランズウィック州  New Brunswick
 rebuilding New Brunswick [PDF] | @Gov_NB では、Aerospace and Defence、Biosciences、Information and Communications Technology、Industrial Fabrication、Value-Added Food、Value-Added Wood の6分野が2012-16年の経済成長重点分野として挙げられています。また、Industry | @Gov_NB では、Forestry、Fishing、Mining、Construction、Manufacturing、Food Service の6分野が挙げられています。

(11)ユーコン準州  Yukon
 Priority Sectors | @InvestYukon では、Film and Sound、Forestry、 Innovation and Technology、Mining and Exploration、Oil and Gas、Tourism and Culture の6分野が挙げられ、それぞれにおいて概要説明等多くの情報が掲載されています。

(12)ノースウェスト準州 Northwest Territories
 Sectors | Industry, Tourism and Investment @ Government of the Northwest Territories では、”There are ten areas of focus identified by the Department for which programs and services are delivered directly or indirectly: ” とされて、Business and Economic Development、Traditional Economy、Tourism、Parks、Mines & Minerals、Diamonds、Oil & Gas、Arts, Crafts, and Film、Agriculture & Fisheries、NWT Geological Survey の10分野が挙げられ、それぞれにおいて概要説明等多くの情報が掲載されています。

(13)ヌナブト準州 Nunavut
 Department of Executive and Intergovernmental Affairs @GOVofNUNAVUT では、Economy として Mineral Exploration and Mining、Traditional Harvesting、Fisheries、Tourism、Inuit art の5分野が挙げられています。

(14) なお、Explore Canada | The Canadian Trade Commissioner Service にも、Sector Strengths(主要経済分野)も含めたカナダ各州・都市の経済情勢等が掲載されています。

3. Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (@MinisterISED) で “Export” “Import” と “Invest in Canada” について調べることができます。
 後者については、”It’s no wonder that Canada is a recognized world leader in many industries” とされて、Aerospace、Automotive(工場一覧にホンダ及びトヨタの記載有り)、Information and Communications Technologies、Shipbuilding の4分野が挙げられ、それぞれにおいて企業や政策の紹介、また、検索コーナーなどが掲載されています。
 前者については、- Search by product において検出された2015年の、カナダの輸出先国及び金額、カナダの輸入元国及び金額、13(準含む)各州から日本への最大輸出品目及び金額 を以下貼っておきます。
Canada export 2015Canada import 2015
Ontario largest to Japan 2015
BC largest to Japan 2015
Quebec largest to Japan 2015
Alberta largest to Japan 2015
Manitoba largest to Japan 2015
Sask largest to Japan 2015
NL largest to Japan 2015
PEI largest to Japan 2015
NS largest to Japan 2015
NB largest to Japan 2015
Yukon largest to Japan 2015
NWT largest to Japan 2015
Nunavut largest to Japan 2015

Canada カナダ Vol.2


1. Trudeau, Mexican president stand up for free trade, take shots at Trump-style protectionism | @leeberthiaume @nationalpost では、加墨首脳間でのビザ及び牛肉に係る相互合意につき書かれています。国家の経済成長と国民自身の成功を妨げる内向きの保護主義が忍び寄る昨今それに打ち勝つべく、カナダ側からは今年12月1日までにメキシコ国民のカナダ入国につきビザを不要とする旨、メキシコ側からは今年10月までにカナダ産牛肉に係る全ての制限を撤廃する旨発表しています。(…the Canada-Mexico relationship is “a compelling example that we want to showcase at a time where unfortunately people are prone to turning inwards, which will unfortunately be at the cost of their economic growth and their own success.” To cement the Canada-Mexico relationship, Trudeau announced the Liberal government will lift visa requirements on Mexican travellers by Dec. 1. At the same time, Pena Nieto said Mexico will remove all restrictions on Canadian beef by October. The Harper government introduced the visa requirement in 2009, after thousands of Mexicans flooded Canada’s refugee system…)

2. More than a Pretty Face: Justin Trudeau and the Liberal Vision for Canada | Anna Murphy @BrownBPR では、カナダを政治的・経済的・社会的にプログレッシブ(進歩的)にするというトルドー首相の政策について書かれています(…Trudeau’s success in the federal election showed that his promise to make Canada a more politically, economically, and socially progressive nation was well received…)。
 スタイルのみならず内容があるのか、成果も出せるのかが問われ始めている(…As the Prime Minister now aims to carry out his campaign promises, the people in turn are beginning to ask if…there is substance behind his style… Will popularity translate into product?)。
 予算を見ればビジョンが分かり、その問いへの答えも見える。自由党の当初の計画の変更及びハーパー保守党政権の緊縮財政からの脱却が見て取れる。短期的な予算削減よりも政府による投資の方が経済を強化し長期的に財政を自然均衡させる、という考え方である。(The budget, which offers better insight into Trudeau’s vision for the coming years than the fanfare that has captured the attention of media around the world, begins to answer this question. It reveals a distinctly Liberal plan for Canada and a massive departure from the austerity measures of the Conservative Harper government. It also aims for a drastic increase in spending with only a potential minor tax raise for the middle class. …Trudeau and finance minister Bill Morneau’s departure from their original plan underlines their economic ideology: The idea is that government investment will be better at strengthening the economy and balancing the budget in the long run than short term measures to cut the deficit. …also lead to long-term investments that will balance the budget naturally.)
 また、予算には政治的・社会的な思想も組み込まれている。クリーンテクノロジーへの10億ドル、公共交通や水処理施設のようなインフラへの119億ドルは、経済強化と環境保全に資することが期待される。(Besides deficit spending, Trudeau’s budget combines his economic policies with some of the political and social talking points of his campaign… In general, Trudeau’s budget aims to balance economic strength and environmental protection… The $1 billion investment in clean technology as well as the $11.9 billion investment in infrastructure systems, such as public transit and water treatment plants…)
 更に、5年総額84億ドルを先住民族の教育と福祉に充てている(…Trudeau is hoping to address the failures of the Harper government in advancing the education and welfare of aboriginals by allocating a whopping $8.4 billion over five years for Canada’s indigenous groups.)。
 メディアはトルドー首相の外見や愛嬌に着目し続けるが、それだけでは、アルバータ州・オンタリオ州都市周辺部・ケベック州農村部・トロント市部の保守派やアメリカなど外国のトレンドがトルドー政権のリベラルな思想とは異なり得ることを忘れる危険がある。(…Conservatives in Alberta, the suburbs of Ontario, rural Quebec, and even urban Toronto paint a very different picture of Canada than the Trudeau-inspired portraits of liberal harmony… As the media continues to marvel at Trudeau’s looks and charm, national and international political rhetoric surrounding Canada runs the risk of forgetting both the substantial policy initiatives of the current government as well as the political discord present within the nation that continues to reflect the beliefs of a significant amount of the population… While dissent is not necessarily negative — Canadian discord has not yet translated into deadlock — the political climate in Canada needs to be looked at more soberly. Trudeau’s popularity is enduring, but it should not be considered synonymous with practically unanimous political support.)

3. Justin Trudeau targets billionaires, tech moguls at secretive Sun Valley conference: Annual gathering in Idaho attracts some of the world’s richest business leaders | @CBCNews では、アメリカの投資会社アレン&カンパニーによりアイダホ州サンバレーで7月6日にメディア非公開で開催される(た)、テクノロジーやメディアの大御所が年一回集う会議に、トルドー首相が出席する(した)旨書かれています。

4. Justin Trudeau makes investment pitch to Japan’s automakers: PM in ‘relationship-building mode’ with heads of Honda, Toyota and Subaru | @AndyBlatchford @CBCNews では、トルドー首相が5月24日に東京のカナダ大使公邸でホンダ、トヨタ、スバルの社長や自動車部品製造事業者を招待して、カナダへの更なる投資を呼び掛けた旨書かれています。
 また、カナダがブリティッシュコロンビア州からのLNG輸出の環境保全規制上の許可を出すことを日本が望んでいる旨も書かれています(Abe is also expected to urge Trudeau to move quickly to open up Canadian liquefied natural gas exports to Japan. Japan, the world’s biggest importer of LNG, is hoping Canada will issue necessary environmental permits to allow companies to export it from British Columbia. Monji said LNG is still very important energy source for his country, which makes Canada one of the most promising potential exporters to Japan. He noted that Japanese companies are involved in several LNG projects in Canada.)。

Canada カナダ Vol.1

今まではアメリカの時代でしたがこれからは北米の時代になるという論が否定されず(参考:America on the Way Up | Brookings Institution21st Century North America: Building the Most Competitive and Dynamic Region in the World | Joint Statement by North American Leaders)、論理必然的にカナダの重要性が高まることになります。他方、北米大陸で地続きであることもあるのか、アメリカとの具体的な違いなどカナダの詳細を知ろうと日本人が思い立つことは多くなかったかもしれません。今こそ、日本との物理的距離がアメリカの大半よりも近いこの国をもっと知ると、仕事に旅行に役に立つのではないでしょうか。今後、

在日カナダ大使館 Embassy of Canada to Japan(日本語)、在日カナダ商工会議所 Canadian Chamber of Commerce in Japan(日本語)、カナダ連邦政府観光局 Destination Canada(日本語)、〔以下リンク:原則、English〕Global Affairs Canada カナダ連邦政府外務国際貿易省(このURLで政府代表部等の出先機関につながります)、Canadian Trade Commissioner Service カナダ連邦トレードコミッショナーサービスNatural Resources Canada カナダ連邦政府天然資源省Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada カナダ連邦政府農業農産食料省Fisheries and Oceans Canada カナダ連邦政府漁業海洋省Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada カナダ連邦政府産業省Canadian Federation of Independent BusinessTransport Canada カナダ連邦政府運輸インフラコミュニティ省PRIME MINISTER OF CANADA カナダ連邦首相Business Council of Canada カナダ連邦ビジネス評議会
Government of British Columbia ブリティッシュコロンビア州政府Trade and Invest British ColumbiaGovernment of Alberta アルバータ州政府Business & Workforce in AlbertaGovernment of Saskatchewan サスカチェワン州政府Saskatchewan Trade & Export PartnershipProvince of Manitoba マニトバ州政府Manitoba Trade and InvestmentGovernment of Ontario オンタリオ州政府Canada Business OntarioGovernment of Québec ケベック州政府Investissement Québec(日本語)、Government of New Brunswick ニューブランズウィック州政府Opportunities NBGovernment of Nova Scotia ノバスコシア州政府Tourism Nova ScotiaGovernment of Prince Edward Island プリンスエドワードアイランド州政府Innovation PEIGovernment of Newfoundland and Labrador ニューファンドランド&ラブラドール州政府Newfoundland & Labrador TourismGovernment of Nunavut ヌナブット準州政府Nunavut TourismGovernment of Northwest Territories ノースウェスト準州政府ノースウエスト準州政府観光局(日本語)、Government of Yukon ユーコン準州政府Tourism Yukon、市・商工会議所(Canadian Chamber of Commerceなど)、
International Civil Aviation Organization, Montréal 国際民間航空機関Arctic Institute, U.S.Arctic Council, NorwayArctic Frontiers, NorwayWWF Arctic Programme, Ottawa
貿易、地域経済、大学・企業提携、北極、観光、地域間国際交流などいくつかの項目について少しずつ掘り下げて参ります。標記『カナダ Vol._』とはタイトルが異なる場合も含めて、記事や報道なども適宜ご紹介します。